RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy

Moscow, Russia

RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy

Moscow, Russia
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Sorokin A.A.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2015

Models of an aerosol module intended for calculating the formation and evolution of aerosol particles of fission products in the first loop of VVER in the case of a serious accident with emission of fission products from damaged fuel elements into the coolant are described. The characteristic features of the module are modeling of the nucleation kinetics of aerosols in the classical approximation, nonequilibrium condensation of the vapors of the fission products, fuel, and components of the reactor structures, and the method for calculating the coagulation of multicomponent aerosols. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Sorokin A.A.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2015

The modeling of the deposition of cesium, iodine, and silver in comparison with the PHEBUS FPT1 experiment is examined for two models of the formation of aerosols of fission products: taking account of nucleation and conservative setting of the initial size of the aerosols of nonvolatile components. It is shown that it is important to take aerosols into account in order to calculate the deposition of cesium and silver. The discrepancy between the computed deposition of iodine and experiment is primarily due to the absence of a model of the nonequilibrium chemistry of compounds in the gas phase. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Sorokin A.A.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2015

Methods for modeling the coagulation in an aerosol code developed for calculating the behavior of multicomponent aerosols are examined. A comparative analysis is made and the methods are tested on model problems for conditions characterizing the formation of aerosols of fission products in the first loop of VVER during an accident with depressurization of fuel elements. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Mitenkova E.F.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy | Novikov N.V.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2011

The calculation of the composition of irradiated fuel for different degrees of burnup is a basic problem in the analysis of nuclear-radiological safety of objects holding spent fuel assemblies. The yield of fission products is one of the important initial indicators in burnup calculations. Methods for compiling libraries of fission products yield on the basis of the ENDF/B up-to-date evaluated nuclear data files are described. The nuclide composition of uranium oxide and uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors is analyzed by means of high-precision calculations performed with different fission product yields libraries using different computer codes MONTEBURNS-MCNP5-ORIGEN2 and the results are presented. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.


Spirin E.V.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Spiridonov S.I.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Alexakhin R.M.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Utkin S.S.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2013

The irradiation dose to man along different pathways for exposure to radionuclides from deep and surface uranium deposits in the case the radionuclides emerge at the soil surface is determined. It is found that the irradiation dose from radon inhalation is five times higher than the total dose from radionuclides entering with water and food and external irradiation. Radionuclides make the largest contribution (70-93%) to the internal irradiation dose from produce grown on the contaminated territory; polonium is an exception: it enters the body with bread products. The method used to determine the potential radio-ecological hazard posed by a uranium deposit could be helpful for validating the radiation-migration balance of long-lived high-level wastes from nuclear power generation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Mitenkova E.F.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy | Solovyeva E.V.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2013

The characteristics of plutonium breeding and accumulation in a fast reactor with dioxide, mixed oxide, and uranium-plutonium-zirconium metallic fuel are presented. The results of an analysis of the accumulation factors, obtained in different computational models, for secondary fuel in a BN-800 type reactor are presented. The changes in the breeding ratios on burnup are examined. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Dzama D.V.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy | Sorokovikova O.S.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2016

A three-dimensional code for calculating the dissemination of radioactive contamination in the presence of industrial buildings is being developed at IBRAE RAN. The irradiation dose near an object, including the dose from a radioactive cloud, is calculated on the basis of modeling. The calculation is conducted taking account of radiation screening by buildings. This work is devoted to the verification of the computational method. Calculations of two tests are presented: with and without a screening obstacle. It is concluded that the accuracy of the method, incorporated into the three-dimensional computational code, is adequate. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Vasil'ev A.D.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy | Romanovskii V.I.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2015

A series of high-temperature experiments with an electrically heated fuel assembly in a steam–argon mixture followed by rapid cooling of the assembly with water or saturated steam is analyzed. The possibility of efficiently cooling a water-heated and water-moderated reactor core, heated to high temperature during a serious accident, by flooding the core with water from the bottom is studied. The oxidation of fuel-element cladding, hydrogen release upon heating and reflooding and heat-transfer processes, characteristic for a serious accident in a reactor and determining the effectiveness of flooding as a measure to control the accident, are analyzed in detail for a single experiment. The analysis is performed using the SOKRAT/V2 software code developed for modeling measures taken to control serious accidents in VVER. Analysis of experiments shows that reflooding the core, heated in a steam medium to temperature not exceeding 2100–2200 K, can be an effective measure to stop catastrophic development of a serious accident at NPP with VVER. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Sorokin A.A.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy | Atesh A.G.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2016

Test results for models of particle coagulation and settling on a surface in an aerosol module in analytical tests and experiments are presented. A module is being developed for modeling the dynamics of polydisperse multicomponent aerosols in the first loop of VVER during a serious accident with emission of fission products from fuel elements into the coolant flow. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Karkhov A.N.,RAS Institute of Problems in the Safe Development of Nuclear Energy
Atomic Energy | Year: 2012

The results of an economic analysis of the market and comparative assessments of the fossil-fuel and nuclear power technologies is presented, demonstrating that market profit includes in addition to the investment component, which depends on the rate of market growth, an innovation component determined by the advances made in science and technology. An energy system is considered in which different investment projects characterized by definite discounted costs, effective service life, and specific investments, are used. The total profit of the nuclear power plant technology is found to be equal to the sum of the investment and innovation components, so that a nuclear power plant can be considered to be an innovative technology. The investment component of profit, determined by the difference between the total profit and the corresponding innovation component, increases as a result of which the innovation component fraction in the total profit decreases.

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