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Kuzmin Y.V.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy
Radiocarbon | Year: 2010

The chronometry of the origin of pottery in East Asia can give some insights to the question: did environmental changes trigger and/or accelerate innovations such as pottery-making, maritime adaptation, and agriculture? Recent results show that pottery emerged in 3 regions of East Asia: south China (up to ~14,800 BP), the Japanese Islands (about 13,800- 13,500 BP), and the Russian Far East (~13,300 BP). The earliest pottery in the Old World preceded the Bølling-Allerød warm period (about 13,000-11,500 BP). Thus, the relationship between climate and pottery origin was not "linear." It seems that the combination of environmental changes and the necessity to process freshwater fish and mollusks and terrestrial plants (including acorns and nuts) resulted in the introduction of pottery-making in East Asia. An important feature is the quite nonuniform nature of the Neolithization process in the eastern part of Asia, where often in 2 neighboring regions pottery appeared at very different times: approximately 15,000-14,000 BP in south China and ~4000 BP in mainland Southeast Asia. Thus, the kind of eternal question like "What caused what?" still stands in terms of what were the driving forces for the emergence of pottery in East Asia and worldwide. © 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Source

Kuzmin Y.V.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy
Radiocarbon | Year: 2012

The recent progress in radiocarbon dating of the prehistoric cultural complexes in the Russian Far East is discussed against the background of ancient chronologies for greater East Asia. Since 1997, the wide use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating along with the continuation of conventional dating has allowed us to establish the age of several key Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Paleometal sites. It has also contributed to advancing a deeper understanding of the timing for the beginning of pottery production, maritime adaptation, and agriculture, and several other important issues in prehistoric chronology for the studied region. Reservoir age correction values for the Japan and Okhotsk seas are now used to adjust the age for samples of marine origin. Some of the cultural-chronological models for prehistoric far eastern Russian complexes put forward in the last 10 yr lack a solid basis, and are critically evaluated herein. © 2012 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Source

Kuzmin Y.V.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy
Radiocarbon | Year: 2013

Data on the emergence of pottery and agriculture in Eurasia were analyzed from the view of their spatiotemporal relationship. It was found that there are 2 major types of association between pottery and agriculture: 1) East Asian, with pottery as the main criterion of the Neolithization; and 2) Levantine, with agriculture as the phenomenon most closely related to the emergence of the Neolithic. Some regions of Eurasia have intermediate characteristics. The concept of a single area for pottery origin in eastern Eurasia and its subsequent spread to the west, still used by some scholars, is the revival of the old diffusionist paradigm and does not seem to advance the analysis of the Neolithization process. If the wheat/barley agriculture definitely originated in the Levantine "core" and spread toward Anatolia and central/western Europe, it is impossible to apply the same approach to pottery. The latest developments in chronology of the earliest ceramics in China, one of the key regions in the world in terms of the origin of pottery-making, are critically evaluated. © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Source

Novikov I.S.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy
Russian Geology and Geophysics | Year: 2013

The Junggar basin contains an almost continuous section of Late Carboniferous-Quaternary terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The maximum thicknesses of the stratigraphic units constituting the basin cover make up a total of ~. 23 km, and the basement under the deepest part of the basin is localized at a depth of ~. 18 km. Both the folded framing and the basin edges have undergone uplifting and erosion during recent activity. These processes have exposed all the structural stages of the basin cover. Considering the completeness and detailed stratigraphic division of the section, we can determine the exact geologic age of intense mountain growth and erosion periods as well as estimate the age of orogenic periods by interpolating the stratigraphic ages. During the Permian orogeny, which included two stages (255-265 and 275-290 Ma), the Junggar, Zaisan, and Turpan-Hami basins made up a whole. During the Triassic orogeny (210-230 Ma), the Junggar and Turpan-Hami basins became completely isolated from each other. During the Jurassic orogeny (135-145 and 160-200 Ma), the sedimentation took place within similar boundaries but over a smaller area. During the Cretaceous orogeny (65-85 and 125-135 Ma), the mountain structures formed mainly at the southern boundaries of the basin and along the Karamaili-Saur line. The Junggar and Zaisan basins were separated at that time. The Early and Middle Paleogene were characterized by relative tectonic quiescence. The fifth orogenic stage began in the Oligocene. The recent activity consists of two main stages: Oligocene (23-33 Ma) and Neogene-Quaternary (1.2-7.6 Ma to the present). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dobretsov N.L.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy
Russian Geology and Geophysics | Year: 2010

The paper is a synthesis of models for basic geodynamic processes (spreading, subduction transient into collision, mantle plumes) in relation with the Earth's evolution and regularly changing geodynamic parameters. The main trends and milestones of this evolution record irreversible cooling of the Earth's interior, oxidation of the surface, and periodic changes in geodynamic processes. The periodicity consists of cycles of three characteristic sizes, namely 700-800 Myr global cycles, 120, 90, and 30 Myr smaller cycles, and short-period millennial to decadal oscillations controlled by changing Earth's orbital parameters and, possibly, also by other extraterrestrial factors. Major events and estimates of mantle and surface temperatures, heat flow, viscosity, and the respective regimes of convection and plume magmatism have been reported for the largest periods of the Earth's history: Hadean (4.6-3.9 Ga), Early Archean (3.9-3.3 Ga), Late Archean (3.3-2.6 Ga), Early Proterozoic (2.6-1.9 Ga), Middle Proterozoic (1.9-1.1 Ga), Neoproterozoic (1.1-0.6 Ga), and Phanerozoic with two substages of 0.6-0.3 and 0.3-0 Ga. Current geodynamics is discussed with reference to models of spreading, subduction, and plume activity. Spreading is considered in terms of double-layered mantle convection, with focus on processes in the vicinity of mid-ocean ridges. The problem of mafic melt migration through the upper mantle beneath spreading ridges is treated qualitatively. Main emphasis is placed on models of melting, comparison of experimental and observed melt compositions, and their variations in periods of magmatic activity (about 100 kyr long) and quiescence. The extent and ways of interaction of fluids and melts rising from subduction zones with the ambient mantle remain the most controversial. Plume magmatism is described with a "gas torch" model of thermochemical plumes generated at the core-mantle boundary due to local chemical doping with volatiles (H2, CH2, KH, etc.) which are released from the metallic outer core, become oxidized in the lower mantle, and decrease the melting point of the latter. The concluding section concerns periodicities in endogenous processes and their surface consequences, including the related biospheric evolution. © 2010. Source

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