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Desulfurization of hydrocarbon feeds is achieved by flashing the feed at a target cut point temperature to obtain two fractions. A first fraction contains refractory organosulfur compounds, which boils at or above the target cut point temperature. A second fraction boiling below the target cut point temperature is substantially free of refractory sulfur-containing compounds. The second fraction is contacted with a hydrodesulfurization catalyst in a hydrodesulfurization reaction zone operating under mild conditions to reduce the quantity of organosulfur compounds to an ultra-low level. The first fraction is contacted with gaseous oxidizing agent over an oxidation catalyst having a formula Cu_(x)Zn_(1-x)Al_(2)O_(4) in a gas phase catalytic oxidation reaction zone to convert the refractory organosulfur compounds to SO_(x) and low sulfur hydrocarbons. The by-product SO_(x) is subsequently removed, producing a stream containing a reduced level of organosulfur compounds.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.60M | Year: 2013

Biomass conversion is of high priority for sustainable fuel production, to reduce the reliance of Europe on fossil fuel production and to provide environmentally friendly energy. Aqueous phase reforming (APR) is one of the most promising, competitive ways for the production of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass, since it is low energy consuming. APR enables processing of wet biomass resources without energy intensive drying and additional hydrogen production from water by the water-gas-shift reaction. Hence, APR is one of the processes that allow fast industrialization of conversion systems suited for wet biomass resources. Catalysis is here the key technology. State-of-the-art catalysts used are a) not optimized and b) can lack hydrothermal stability. Regarding the latter, the paradigm shifts towards carbon supported catalysts, due to its superior hydrothermal stability. Within the project experts for multinational industry, SMEs and academia focus on the optimization of hydrothermally stable carbon supported catalysts for the APR to unleash the potential of catalysts. Methodology employed is not a trial and error optimization. By deduction of fundamental structure-property relationships from highly defined model catalysts a catalyst design capability is build up. This capability will be used for optimization with the objectives to increase catalyst activity, selectivity and hydrothermal stability. Cost efficient routes to produce these catalysts in a technical scale will be evaluated and a demonstration catalysts synthesized and operated in long term tests with technical feedstocks and at a competitive price.


BIO-GO-For-Production is a Large Scale Collaborative Research Project that aims to achieve a step change in the application of nanocatalysis to sustainable energy production through an integrated, coherent and holistic approach utilizing novel heterogeneous nanoparticulate catalysts in fuel syntheses. BIO-GO researches and develops advanced nanocatalysts, which are allied with advanced reactor concepts to realise modular, highly efficient, integrated processes for the production of fuels from renewable bio-oils and biogas. Principal objectives are to develop new designs, preparation routes and methods of coating nanocatalysts on innovative micro-structured reactor designs, enabling compact, integrated catalytic reactor systems that exploit fully the special properties of nanocatalysts to improve process efficiency through intensification. An important aim is to reduce the dependence on precious metals and rare earths. Catalyst development is underpinned by modelling, kinetic and in-situ studies, and is validated by extended laboratory runs of biogas and bio-oil reforming, methanol synthesis and gasoline production to benchmark performance against current commercial catalysts. The 4-year project culminates in two verification steps: (a) a 6 month continuous pilot scale catalyst production run to demonstrate scaled up manufacturing potential for fast industrialisation (b) the integration at miniplant scale of the complete integrated process to gasoline production starting from bio-oil and bio-gas feedstocks. A cost evaluation will be carried out on the catalyst production while LCA will be undertaken to analyse environmental impacts across the whole chain. BIO-GO brings together a world class multi-disciplinary team from 15 organisations to carry out the ambitious project, the results of which will have substantial strategic, economic and environmental impacts on the EU petrochemicals industry and on the increasing use of renewable feedstock for energy.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 11.92M | Year: 2014

To meet short term European 20-20-20 objectives and long term targets of European Energy Roadmap 2050, an energy paradigm shift is needed for which biomass conversion into advanced biofuels is essential. This new deal has challenges in catalyst development which so far hinders implementation at industrial level: Firstly, biomass is much more complex and reactive than conventional feedstock; secondly development of such catalysts is traditionally done by lengthy empirical approaches. FASTCARD aims at: -Developing a novel rational design of nano-catalysts for better control; optimised based on advanced characterisation methods and systematic capture of knowledge by scalable mathematical and physical models, allowing prediction of performance in the context of bio-feedstocks; -Developing industrially relevant, insightful Downscaling methodologies to allow evaluation of the impact of diverse and variable bio-feedstocks on catalyst performance; -Addressing major challenges impacting on the efficiency and implementation of 4 key catalytic steps in biobased processes: Hydrotreating (HT) and co-Fluid Catalytic Cracking forming the pyrolysis liquid value chain for near term implementation in existing refining units as a timely achievement of the 20-20-20 objectives: addressing challenges of selectivity and stability in HT; increased bio-oil content in co-FCC. Hydrocarbon (HC) reforming and CO2 tolerant Fischer Tropsch (FT) forming the gasification value chain for longer term implementation in new European relevant infrastructure, representing 100% green sustainable route for Energy Roadmap 2050: addressing challenges of stability and resistance in HC reforming; stability and selectivity for FT. Advances in rational design of nano-catalysts will establish a fundamental platform that can be applied to other energy applications. The project will thus speed-up industrialisation of safer, greener, atom efficient, and stable catalysts, while improving the process efficiency.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 4.10M | Year: 2013

This project is focused to advance considerably the efficiency of power generation in gas turbine processes by the development of improved thermal barrier coated parts or components of significantly improved performance as well as software products providing optimized process parameters. The proposed project addresses the following scientific and technological issues: New TBC formulations with long-term stability, more resistant under extremely severe operating conditions (e.g. creep, fatigue, thermal-mechanical fatigue, oxidation and their interactions, at high service temperatures) thus the maximum application temperature will be higher (e.g.1450-1500oC) and so performance during energy generation. Flexible and cost effective production systems based mainly on thermal spray (SPS/SPPS, APS, HVOF) but also EB-PVD in order to realize patterned functional TBCs with improved properties. Application of structural analysis and fluid simulation software, including radiation, combustion, heat transfer, fluid-structure interactions and conjugate heat transfer models for the development of detailed models for the operational performance and prediction of spallation phenomena and failure. Environmentally friendly process using chemical formulations free of hazardous and toxic solvents. The aim of this project is the development of materials, methods and models suitable to fabricate, monitor, evaluate and predict the performance and overall energy efficiency of novel thermal barrier coatings for energy generative systems. By the radical improvement of the performance (working temperature, lifetime etc) of materials in service, by the application of novel thermal barrier coatings, structural design and computational fluid simulations a significant improvement in energy efficiency and cost effectiveness will be achieved.


Maki-Arvela P.,Åbo Akademi University | Simakova I.L.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis | Salmi T.,Åbo Akademi University | Murzin D.Y.,Åbo Akademi University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Lactic acid synthesis from biomass and its further transformations to commodity chemicals are studied. Lactic acid or alkyl lactate production from biomass has been performed using homogeneous metal salts as catalysts in subcritical water, whereas with the aid of heterogeneous catalysts. Under subcritical conditions, however, several side products have been formed, such as levulinic and formic acid, thus lowering the yield of lactic acid. The drawback of homogeneous catalysts is the difficult catalyst reuse. Oxidative dehydrogenation of lactic acid to pyruvic acid was studied in the gas and liquid phases. In liquid the phase the best results were obtained with 0.19% Te-Pd/C catalyst, providing a 68.2% yield of sodium pyruvate at 85 °C and 1 MPa. Several processes, such as production of polylactic acid, have been realized industrially, while others, in particular catalytic hydrogenation and esterification of lactic acid, are already in the later stages, including process development and modeling.


Aristov Y.I.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

Booming progress in the materials science offers a huge choice of novel porous solids which may be used for adsorption transformation of low temperature heat. This communication gives an overview of original and literature data on several classes of materials potentially promising for this important application, namely, metalaluminophosphates (AlPOs, SAPOs, MeAPOs), metal-organic frameworks (MIL, ISE, etc.), ordered porous solids (MCM, SBA, etc.), porous carbons and various composites (SWSs, AlPO-Al foil). For the SWS composites, we briefly considered the recent trends in their developing, namely, usage of host matrices with uniform pore dimensions and binary salt systems. We hope that this review will give new impulses to target-oriented research on the novel adsorbents for AHT and may also be beneficial for further consolidating international activities in materials science and heat transformation applications. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Talsi E.P.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis | Bryliakov K.P.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

The discovery of simple and efficient catalyst systems for the selective oxofunctionalization of hydrocarbons is a challenging task of modern chemistry. The biomimetic approach, which aims at mimicking the reactivity of natural enzymes in catalyzed transformation with synthetic low-molecular weight compounds, has been widely applied to the search for new transition metal based catalyst systems in the last two decades. In effect, numerous iron and manganese complexes modeling the catalytic performance of non-heme metal-containing monooxygenases have been reported and intensively investigated. In this contribution, non-heme iron- and manganese catalyzed selective oxidations of alkanes, as well as chemo- and stereoselective epoxidations and cis-dihydroxylations of alkenes, using H 2O 2 as the oxygen source, are reviewed, with major focus on the their synthetic potential. Recent experimental investigations of the nature of catalytically active species and mechanisms of their action are summarized. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Aristov Y.I.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2012

Developing a database of adsorbents promising for adsorptive transformation of heat is very timely. This database would play an important role in unification of adsorbent properties, correct comparison of various adsorbents, theoretical analysis, mathematical modeling and brief estimation of heat transformation cycle performance. In this paper, we discuss principles of creating such database, consider the adsorbent properties which should be given there, and address the issues of their measurement and calculation. A tentative list of common and innovative adsorbents to be presented in the database is discussed as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhdanov V.P.,Chalmers University of Technology | Zhdanov V.P.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Physics Reports | Year: 2011

In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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