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Huemer M.,University of Zürich | Burer C.,University of Zürich | Jesina P.,Charles University | Kozich V.,Charles University | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2015

Background: The cobalamin E (cblE) (MTRR, methionine synthase reductase) and cobalamin G (cblG) (MTR, methionine synthase) defects are rare inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism leading to impairment of the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Methods: Information on clinical and laboratory data at initial full assessment and during the course of the disease, treatment, outcome and quality of life was obtained in a survey-based, retrospective study from physicians caring for patients with the CblE or CblG defect. In addition, data on enzyme studies in cultured skin fibroblasts and mutations in the MTRR and MTR gene were analysed. Results: In 11 cblE and 13 cblG patients, failure to thrive, feeding problems, delayed milestones, muscular hypotonia, cognitive impairment and macrocytic anaemia were the most frequent symptoms. Delay in diagnosis depended on age at first symptom and clinical pattern at presentation and correlated significantly with impaired communication abilities at follow-up. Eighteen/22 patients presented with brain atrophy or white matter disease. Biochemical response to treatment with variable combinations of betaine, cobalamin, folate was significant. The overall course was considered improving (n = 8) or stable (n = 15) in 96 % of patients, however the average number of CNS symptoms per patient increased significantly over time and 16 of 23 patients were classified as developmentally delayed or severely handicapped. In vitro enzyme analysis data showed no correlation with outcome. Predominantly private mutations were detected and no genotype– phenotype correlations evident. Conclusions: The majority of patients with the cblE and cblG defect show limited clinical response to treatment and have neurocognitive impairment. © 2014, SSIEM.


Ferla R.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Ferla R.,University of Naples Federico II | Claudiani P.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Claudiani P.,University of Naples Federico II | And 21 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2015

Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been successfully used in the clinic and hold great promise for liver-directed gene therapy. Preexisting immunity against AAV8 or the development of antibodies against the therapeutic transgene product might negatively affect the outcomes of gene therapy. In the prospect of an AAV8-mediated, liver-directed gene therapy clinical trial for mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by arylsulfatase B (ARSB) deficiency, we investigated in a multiethnic cohort of MPS VI patients the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) to AAV8 and the presence of ARSB cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM), which will either affect the efficacy of gene transfer or the duration of phenotypic correction. Thirty-six MPS VI subjects included in the study harbored 45 (62.5%) missense, 13 (18%) nonsense, 9 (12.5%) frameshift (2 insertions and 7 deletions), and 5 (7%) splicing ARSB mutations. The detection of ARSB protein in 24 patients out of 34 (71%) was predicted by the type of mutations. Preexisting Nab to AAV8 were undetectable in 19/33 (58%) analyzed patients. Twelve out of 31 patients (39%) tested were both negative for Nab to AAV8 and CRIM-positive. In conclusion, this study allows estimating the number of MPS VI patients eligible for a gene therapy trial by intravenous injections of AAV8. Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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