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Buonuomo P.S.,Rare Diseases and Medical Genetics | Bartuli A.,Rare Diseases and Medical Genetics | Rabacchi C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bertolini S.,University of Genoa | Calandra S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2015

Background Familial chylomicronemia is a genetic defect of the intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Intravascular lipolysis involves the TG-hydrolase lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as well as other factors such as apolipoprotein CII and apolipoprotein AV (activators of LPL), GPIHBP1 (the molecular platform required for LPL activity on endothelial surface), and LMF1 (a factor required for intracellular formation of active LPL). Methods We sequenced the familial chylomicronemia candidate genes in a neonate with chylomicronemia. Results A 3-day-old newborn was found to have chylomicronemia (plasma TG 18.8 mmol/L, 1.667 mg/dL). The discontinuation of breastfeeding for 24 hours reduced plasma TG to 2.3 mmol/L (201 mg/dL), whereas its resumption induced a sharp TG increase (7.9 mmol/L, 690 mg/dL). The child was switched to a low-fat diet, which was effective in maintaining TG level below 3.5 mmol/L (294 mg/dL) during the first months of life. The child was found to be a compound heterozygous for 2 novel mutations in GPIHBP1 gene. The first mutation was a 9-bp deletion and 4-bp insertion in exon 2, causing a frameshift that abolished the canonical termination codon TGA. The predicted translation product of the mutant messenger RNA is a peptide that contains 51 amino acids of the N-terminal end of the wild-type protein followed by 252 novel amino acids. The second mutation was a nucleotide change (c.319T>C), causing an amino acid substitution p.(Ser107Pro) predicted in silico to be damaging. Conclusions GPIHBP1 mutations should be considered in neonates with chylomicronemia negative for mutations in LPL gene. © 2015 National Lipid Association.

Gonfiantini M.V.,Rare Diseases and Medical Genetics | Armando M.,Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital | Pucciarini M.L.,Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital | Pucciarini M.L.,Lumsa University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2015

Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome (BDCS) [OMIM 301845] is an X-linked dominant disorder of the hair follicle characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, follicular atrophoderma, congenital hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis. Additional features include multiple milia, trichoepitheliomas, and axillary hidradenitis suppurativa as well as a variety of other symptoms. Some patients with a diagnosis of BDCS have had poor school performance. But no other associated psychopathological disorders have been described in the literature. We describe the neuropsychological characteristics and the co-occurring psychopathological disorders in an Italian family (brother and sister, and their mother) affected by BDCS. The BDCS phenotype in this family was characterized by hypotrichosis, atrophoderma follicularis, milia, and trichoepitheliomas. No basal cell carcinomas were documented. At neuropsychological assessment the three affected family members all had a borderline cognitive level. Other identified psychopathological disorders included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, executive deficits, academic difficulties, deficits in lexical skills, and internalizing problems. The presence of cognitive impairment in the three family members affected by BDCS suggests that cognitive impairment may be associated with the syndrome. It may be useful to assess neuropsychological performance in patients with BDCS to identify possible associated neuropsychological disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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