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Shohat M.,Raphael Recanati Genetic Institute | Shohat M.,Felsenstein Medical Research Center | Shohat M.,Tel Aviv University | Halpern G.J.,Raphael Recanati Genetic Institute | Halpern G.J.,Felsenstein Medical Research Center
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2011

Familial Mediterranean fever is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There are two phenotypes: types 1 and 2. Familial Mediterranean fever type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis, including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication. Familial Mediterranean fever type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever in an otherwise asymptomatic individual. Routine treatment of end-stage renal disease, including renal transplantation, is advised. Lifelong treatment with colchicine is required for homozygotes for the p.Met694Val mutation or compound heterozygotes for p.Met694Val and another disease-causing allele; this prevents the inflammatory attacks and the deposition of amyloid. Individuals who do not have the p.Met694Val mutation and who are only mildly affected should be either treated with colchicine or monitored every 6 months for the presence of proteinuria. Molecular genetic testing of the MEFV gene, the only gene currently known to be associated with familial Mediterranean fever, can be offered to family members, especially when the p.Met694Val allele is present, because renal amyloidosis can be prevented by colchicine. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Peyrard-Janvid M.,Karolinska Institutet | Leslie E.J.,University of Iowa | Kousa Y.A.,Michigan State University | Smith T.L.,University of Iowa | And 20 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) account for ∼70% of cases of Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndromic form of cleft lip and palate. In 8 of 45 VWS-affected families lacking a mutation in IRF6, we found coding mutations in grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). According to a zebrafish-based assay, the disease-associated GRHL3 mutations abrogated periderm development and were consistent with a dominant-negative effect, in contrast to haploinsufficiency seen in most VWS cases caused by IRF6 mutations. In mouse, all embryos lacking Grhl3 exhibited abnormal oral periderm and 17% developed a cleft palate. Analysis of the oral phenotype of double heterozygote (Irf6 +/-;Grhl3+/-) murine embryos failed to detect epistasis between the two genes, suggesting that they function in separate but convergent pathways during palatogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that mutations in two genes, IRF6 and GRHL3, can lead to nearly identical phenotypes of orofacial cleft. They supported the hypotheses that both genes are essential for the presence of a functional oral periderm and that failure of this process contributes to VWS. © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Michaelson-Cohen R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Gershoni-Baruch R.,Rambam Healthcare Campus | Sharoni R.,Genetic Institute | Shochat M.,Raphael Recanati Genetic Institute | And 2 more authors.
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2014

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is a novel approach, designed for detecting common aneuploidies in the fetus. The Israeli Society of Medical Geneticists (ISMG) supports its use according to the guidelines stated herein. The clinical data collected thus far indicate that NIPT is highly sensitive in detecting trisomies 21 and 18, and fairly sensitive in detecting trisomy 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Because false-positive results may occur, an abnormal result must be validated by invasive prenatal testing. At this juncture, NIPT does not replace existing prenatal screening tests for Down syndrome, as these are relatively inexpensive and cost-effective. Nonetheless, NIPT may be offered to women considered to be at high risk for fetal chromosomal abnormalities as early as 10 weeks of gestation. The ISMG states that NIPT should be an informed patient choice, and that pretest counseling regarding the limitations of NIPT is warranted. Women at high risk for genetic disorders not detected by NIPT should be referred for genetic counseling. A normal test result may be conveyed by a relevant healthcare provider, while an abnormal result should be discussed during a formal genetic consultation session. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Basel-Vanagaite L.,Schneider Childrens Medical Center | Basel-Vanagaite L.,Raphael Recanati Genetic Institute | Basel-Vanagaite L.,Tel Aviv University | Pasmanik-Chor M.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2011

Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) and ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly and macular dystrophy (EEM) are both caused by mutations in the CDH3 gene. In this report, we describe a family with EEM syndrome caused by a novel CDH3 gene mutation and review the mutation spectrum and limb abnormalities in both EEM and HJMD. A protein structure model showing the localization of different mutations causing both syndromes is presented. The CDH3 gene was sequenced and investigation of the mutations performed using a protein structure model. The conservation score was calculated by ConSurf. We identified a novel CDH3 gene mutation, p.G277V, which resides in a conserved residue located on a β-strand in the second cadherin domain. Review of the data on previously published mutations showed intra-familial and inter-familial variations in the severity of the limb abnormalities. Syndactyly was the most consistent clinical finding present in all the patients regardless of mutation type. The results of our study point to a phenotypic continuum between HJMD and EEM. It is important for genetic counseling to keep in mind the possible clinical/phenotypic overlap between these 2 syndromes and to be aware of the possible risk of limb abnormalities in future pregnancies in families with HJMD syndrome. CDH3 gene mutation screening is recommended in patients with both these syndromes as part of the work-up in order to offer appropriate genetic counseling. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Zarchi O.,Behavioral Neurogenetics Center | Zarchi O.,Institute for Clinical Neurophysiology and Audiology | Attias J.,Institute for Clinical Neurophysiology and Audiology | Attias J.,Haifa University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To comprehensively assess auditory impairments in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Study design: Audiologic measurements were conducted with 62 subjects with VCFS and 44 subjects with WS, as well as two control groups consisting of 22 subjects with idiopathic developmental disability and 23 typically developing controls. An association between severity of hearing loss in VCFS and the 158Val/Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) was explored. Results: Hearing was significantly more impaired in the VCFS and WS groups compared with the developmental disability and typically developing groups. Audiologic abnormalities identified in both the VCFS and WS groups included high-tone hearing loss (predominantly sensorineural or mixed type), loss of acoustic reflex, and middle ear pathologies. In both the VCFS and WS groups, hearing loss severity was positively correlated with age. In the VCFS group, hearing loss was more severe in the subgroup carrying the COMT Val allele compared with the subgroup carrying the COMT Met allele. Conclusions: Hearing impairments, including sensorineural hearing loss and acoustic reflex dysfunction, are very common in both VCFS and WS. Hearing loss is less severe in subjects with the COMT Met allele, possibly due to the protective effect of dopamine on the hearing system. Copyright © 2011 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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