Rangos Research Center

Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Rangos Research Center

Pittsburgh, PA, United States

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Paredes J.,Rangos Research Center | Sims-Lucas S.,Rangos Research Center | Wang H.,Renal Section | Lu W.,Renal Section | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2011

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric anomaly linked to renal scarring and hypertension. Although there are many mouse VUR models, cystograms have previously only been performed in euthanized animals, thus preventing serial assessments for VUR in the same animal and not delineating "live" physiology. Our purpose was to develop a live murine cystogram assay that could be used serially to track reflux. We injected microbubbles via transurethral catheters into bladders of C57BL6/J and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains that are known to have low and high VUR rates, respectively. We performed ultrasound to visualize microbubbles in the renal pelvis to determine feasibility of the procedure. We then repeated the microbubble ultrasound using a transducer allowing for visualization of both kidneys and ureters simultaneously and for 3 dimensional (3D) reconstruction. We then performed "euthanized" cystograms on all mice for comparison. C3H/HeJ mice had a strong and persistent microbubble signal in the renal pelvis and ureters bilaterally with low-contrast infusion volumes (<100 μ1) and similarly showed bilateral reflux by euthanized cystograms. With larger infused volumes (≥150 μl), C57BL6/J mice had small volumes of microbubbles in the renal pelvis that cleared quickly and did not show reflux on euthanized cystograms. Thus, using animal models of known VUR, we demonstrate the utility of contrastenhanced ultrasound to visualize reflux in live mice. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Morran M.P.,University of Michigan | Casu A.,Rangos Research Center | Arena V.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Pietropaolo S.,University of Michigan | And 7 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine whether antigenic determinants localized within the extracellular domain of the neuroendocrine autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 are targets of humoral responses in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Previous studies indicated that the immunodominant region of IA-2 is localized within its intracellular domain (IA-2ic; amino acids 601-979). We analyzed 333 subjects from the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh study, 102 of whom progressed to insulin-requiring diabetes (prediabetics). Autoantibodies from these individuals were initially assayed for ICA512bdc (Barbara Davis Center amino acids 257-556; 630-979), IA-2ic (amino acids 601-979), and IA-2 full-length (amino acids 1-979) in addition to islet cell antibody (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase, 65-kDa isoform, and insulin autoantibodies. We identified an autoantibody response reactive with the extracellular domain of IA-2 that is associated with very high risk of T1DM progression. Relatives with no detectable autoantibodies against ICA512bdc (or IA-2ic) exhibited antibody responses against the IA-2 full-length peptide (log rank, P = 0.008). This effect was also observed in first-degree relatives who were positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase, 65-kDa isoform (log rank, P = 0.026) or at least two islet autoantibodies but were negative for ICA512bdc (log rank, P = 0.022). Competitive binding experiments and immunoprecipitation of the IA-2 extracellular domain (amino acid residues 26-577) further lend support for the presence of autoantibodies reactive with new antigenic determinants within the extracellular domain of IA-2. In summary, the addition of measurements of autoantibodies reactive with the IA-2 extracellular domain to assays geared to assess the progression of autoimmunity to clinical T1DM may more accurately characterize this risk. This has considerable implications not only for stratifying high diabetes risk but also facilitating the search for pathogenic epitopes to enable the design of peptide-based immunotherapies that may prevent the progression to overt T1DM at its preclinical stages. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.


PubMed | Rangos Research Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: American journal of physiology. Renal physiology | Year: 2011

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric anomaly linked to renal scarring and hypertension. Although there are many mouse VUR models, cystograms have previously only been performed in euthanized animals, thus preventing serial assessments for VUR in the same animal and not delineating live physiology. Our purpose was to develop a live murine cystogram assay that could be used serially to track reflux. We injected microbubbles via transurethral catheters into bladders of C57BL6/J and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains that are known to have low and high VUR rates, respectively. We performed ultrasound to visualize microbubbles in the renal pelvis to determine feasibility of the procedure. We then repeated the microbubble ultrasound using a transducer allowing for visualization of both kidneys and ureters simultaneously and for 3 dimensional (3D) reconstruction. We then performed euthanized cystograms on all mice for comparison. C3H/HeJ mice had a strong and persistent microbubble signal in the renal pelvis and ureters bilaterally with low-contrast infusion volumes (<100 l) and similarly showed bilateral reflux by euthanized cystograms. With larger infused volumes (150 l), C57BL6/J mice had small volumes of microbubbles in the renal pelvis that cleared quickly and did not show reflux on euthanized cystograms. Thus, using animal models of known VUR, we demonstrate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound to visualize reflux in live mice.

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