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München, Germany

Heintze S.D.,RandD | Rousson V.,University of Lausanne | Hickel R.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Dental Materials | Year: 2015

Objectives This is the first meta-analysis on the efficacy of composite resin restorations in anterior teeth. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to verify whether specific material classes, tooth conditioning methods and operational procedures influence the result for Class III and Class IV restorations. Material and methods The database SCOPUS and PubMed were searched for clinical trials on anterior resin composites without restricting the search to the year of publication. The inclusion criteria were: (1) prospective clinical trial with at least 2 years of observation; (2) minimal number of restorations at last recall = 20; (3) report on drop-out rate; (4) report of operative technique and materials used in the trial, and (5) utilization of Ryge or modified Ryge evaluation criteria. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed model was used with random effects to account for the heterogeneity between the studies. p-Values smaller than 0.05 were considered to be significant. Results Of the 84 clinical trials, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, 14 of them for Class III restorations, 6 for Class IV restorations and 1 for closure of diastemata; the latter was included in the Class IV group. Twelve of the 21 studies started before 1991 and 18 before 2001. The estimated median overall success rate (without replacement) after 10 years for Class III composite resin restorations was 95% and for Class IV restorations 90%. The main reason for the replacement of Class IV restorations was bulk fractures, which occurred significantly more frequently with microfilled composites than with hybrid and macrofilled composites. Caries adjacent to restorations was infrequent in most studies and accounted only for about 2.5% of all replaced restorations after 10 years irrespective of the cavity class. Class III restorations with glass ionomer derivates suffered significantly more loss of anatomical form than did fillings with other types of material. When the enamel was acid-etched and no bonding agent was applied, significantly more restorations showed marginal staining and detectable margins compared to enamel etching with enamel bonding or the total etch technique; fillings with self-etching systems were in between of these two outcome variables. Bevelling of the enamel was associated with a significantly reduced deterioration of the anatomical form compared to no bevelling but not with less marginal staining or less detectable margins. The type of isolation (absolute/relative) had a statistically significant influence on marginal caries which, however, might be a random finding. © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Merten O.-W.,RandD
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000-6000 l reactors) using micro-carriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Strauch T.,RandD
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems | Year: 2011

This paper addresses the problem of finding the right system prototyping hardware which can handle all different kinds of routing graphs for various designs and applications. A structure of multiple field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and their concentric arrangement is proposed. The connectivity is switch based and has no routing limitation. Therefore, no routing limitations must be considered during the design partitioning process. The delays between FPGA pins are short compared to alternative concepts and can be considered as equal. This equal length concept between FPGA pins enables a novel method of wave-pipelined multiplexed data transfer. The flexible routing, the short delays and the equal length aspect enable faster system speeds compared to alternative concepts. The predictive and constant delay between FPGAs eases board level timing models for timing driven system partitioning algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.

Narimani M.,Kings College London | Lam H.K.,Kings College London | Dilmaghani R.,Kings College London | Wolfe C.,RandD | Wolfe C.,Kings College London
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2011

Relaxed linear-matrix-inequality-based stability conditions for fuzzy-model-based control systems with imperfect premise matching are proposed. First, the derivative of the Lyapunov function, containing the product terms of the fuzzy model and fuzzy controller membership functions, is derived. Then, in the partitioned operating domain of the membership functions, the relations between the state variables and the mentioned product terms are represented by approximated polynomials in each subregion. Next, the stability conditions containing the information of all subsystems and the approximated polynomials are derived. In addition, the concept of the S-procedure is utilized to release the conservativeness caused by considering the whole operating region for approximated polynomials. It is shown that the well-known stability conditions can be special cases of the proposed stability conditions. Simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach. © 2010 IEEE.

Heintze S.D.,RandD | Barkmeier W.W.,Creighton University | Latta M.A.,Creighton University | Rousson V.,University of Lausanne
Dental Materials | Year: 2011

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to submit the same materials that were tested in the round robin wear test of 2002/2003 to the Alabama wear method. Methods: Nine restorative materials, seven composites (belleGlass, Chromasit, Estenia, Heliomolar, SureFil, Targis, Tetric Ceram) an amalgam (Amalcap) and a ceramic (IPS Empress) have been submitted to the Alabama wear method for localized and generalized wear. The test centre did not know which brand they were testing. Both volumetric and vertical loss had been determined with an optical sensor. After completion of the wear test, the raw data were sent to IVOCLAR for further analysis. The statistical analysis of the data included logarithmic transformation of the data, the calculation of relative ranks of each material within each test centre, measures of agreement between methods, the discrimination power and coefficient of variation of each method as well as measures of the consistency and global performance for each material. Results: Relative ranks of the materials varied tremendously between the test centres. When all materials were taken into account and the test methods compared with each other, only ACTA agreed reasonably well with two other methods, i.e. OHSU and ZURICH. On the other hand, MUNICH did not agree with the other methods at all. The ZURICH method showed the lowest discrimination power, ACTA, IVOCLAR and ALABAMA localized the highest. Material-wise, the best global performance was achieved by the leucite reinforced ceramic material Empress, which was clearly ahead of belleGlass, SureFil and Estenia. In contrast, Heliomolar, Tetric Ceram and especially Chromasit demonstrated a poor global performance. The best consistency was achieved by SureFil, Tetric Ceram and Chromasit, whereas the consistency of Amalcap and Heliomolar was poor. When comparing the laboratory data with clinical data, a significant agreement was found for the IVOCLAR and ALABAMA generalized wear method. Significance: As the different wear simulator settings measure different wear mechanisms, it seems reasonable to combine at least two different wear settings to assess the wear resistance of a new material. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

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