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Chinnachowk, India

Ranchi University is a university in Jharkhand state of India. It was established on 12 July 1960 as a teaching-cum-affiliating university, and its first vice chancellor was Vishnudeo Narayan Singh. It is headquartered in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand. The university has a total student intake of around 90,000 students from its affiliated colleges. It has a central library with approximately 150,000 books for the academic needs of the students. Wikipedia.

Singh R.P.,Ranchi University | Prasad P.V.V.,Kansas State University | Reddy K.R.,Mississippi State University
Advances in Agronomy

Agriculture is extremely sensitive to climate and weather conditions. The resilience of our crop production systems to changes in climate can be enhanced by improved understanding impacts and responses of crops to changing climates. Several countries in Asia and Africa are at the risk of losing about 280 million tons of potential cereal production as a result of climate change factor, particularly increasing temperatures and prolonged dry periods. The most significant negative changes for developing countries in Asia, where agricultural production declines of about -4% to -10% are anticipated under different socioeconomic and climate change scenarios. Rising temperatures will reduce the amount of fertile farmland, and by 2050, the amount of maize grown is expected to decline by 6-23% and wheat by 40-45%. The majority of the world's food supply comes from the consumption of seeds from grain crops (wheat, rice, maize, soybean, barley, and sorghum), which are most vulnerable to changing climates. The growth in food production is lower than the population growth; therefore, there will be challenges of food security. Major impacts of climate change will be on rain-fed crops that account for nearly 60% of cropland area. As predicted, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa will be highly vulnerable to climate change. Crop production can be increased by the use of quality seeds of high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties, combined with judicious use of inputs, particularly water and nutrients. Climate changes affect all four dimensions of food security, that is, availability, access to food, stability of food supplies, and food utilization. The seed industry plays an important role in increasing food production. It provides high-quality seeds of high-yielding varieties in adequate quantities at the right time and right place. Climate change influences the population dynamics of insects, emergence of new pests, changing status of pest and disease development, and evolution of new races of pests. Quality seed production is also affected by crop/weed interactions, loss of pollinator biodiversity, and genetic diversity. The seed crop is also affected by climate change regarding change in crop phenology, reproduction, flowering, anthesis/pollen viability, and pollination/fertilization, length of seed-filling duration, seed setting, seed size, seed dormancy, seed yield, and ultimately seed quality. Therefore, the cost of seed production is likely to increase in changing climate due to scheduling of operations, land and water management, herbicide/insecticide applications, pollination management, and postharvest seed management. Issues regarding intellectual property rights (IPR) related to seed, including patent infringements, prevalence of monocultures, consolidations of transnational corporations through acquisitions and mergers, and biodiversity and pollinator-loss related issues further complicate the problem. The lack of trained conventional plant breeders, crop physiologists, and seed technologists and stronger interdisciplinary collaboration between agronomists and biologists need attention. Further, acceptance of engineered crop or seed, increasing cost of genetically engineered (GE) seed as compared with conventional seed with no yield advantage, increasing number of herbicide applications, culminate in loss in net farm income in developed countries. In this article, the issues regarding the impact of climate change (particularly increasing temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations) on seed production, the present trend of the global seed industry, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dreze J.,Ranchi University | Khera R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Economic and Political Weekly

This article attempts to resolve the puzzle of public distribution system leakages using the latest available data. Leakages remain high, but there is clear evidence of improvement in recent years, especially in states - including Bihar - that have undertaken bold PDS reforms. The main source of leakages is the "above the poverty line" quota, which is due to be phased out under the National Food Security Act. Source

Manigandan P.K.,Ranchi University | Chandar Shekar B.,Bharathiar University
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

Leaves of Evodia roxburghiana and Elaeocarpus oblongus, and their associated soil samples, were collected from Western Ghats, India, and analysed as bio-indicators of radionuclides. Concentrations of 40K and 210Po in leaves and soils were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter. The transfer factor (TF) of these radionuclides to the plants from the underlying soil was calculated. From a careful analysis of the results, leaves of E. roxburghiana and E. oblongus are identified as bioindicators to monitor fallout radionuclides. From the seasonal study, it was found that mean values of TF were significantly higher in their earlier days of life than when they were getting mature. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

Rana N.K.,Jn College | Prasad J.N.,Ranchi University
Indian Journal of Physics

We have investigated the effects of local relaxation on the electronic structure of Mn atoms in (GaMn)As and the related properties of this dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS). The nearest neighbours of the substitutional Mn atom have been considered for relaxed and non-relaxed conditions, while the other atoms have been left unaffected by the Mn impurity. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), when doped with Mn atoms in a small concentration, becomes ferromagnetic retaining its semiconductor properties and it also acquires half metallic character. These characteristics of this DMS are vital for spintronic applications. We have implemented the scheme of pseudopotential method within the density functional formalism to calculate the electronic structure of (GaMn)As and computed the total density of states and partial density of states under the supercell scheme for unrelaxed and relaxed nearest neighbours of the substitutional Mn atom. We have also discussed a more realistic approach to calculate the local magnetic moment in this kind of systems. At the end, we have discussed the relevance of the present research work in the spintronic applications. © 2012 IACS. Source

Manigandan P.K.,Ranchi University | Chandar Shekar B.,Bharathiar University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Transfer of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K, and the fallout radionuclide 210Po to different wild plant species in the rainforest of Western Ghats was analyzed. A number of physiologically different plants from the top storey and understorey, such as shrubs and epiphytes, were compared. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants and soil were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter, and were found to vary widely within plants and between species. The soil-plant ratios also varied between species while Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants exhibited preferential uptake of these radionuclides. As a result, the dust particles trapped in the root systems of epiphytes could be used as bioindicators of fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. •Predominant plants species of the region were selected for analysis.•CR Model was employed to these plants spices.•Two plants were indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides.•Bioindicator was identified in the Western Ghats Environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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