Ranchers Supply Inc.

Manatee Road, FL, United States

Ranchers Supply Inc.

Manatee Road, FL, United States
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Troyer R.M.,Colorado State University | Beatty J.A.,University of Sydney | Stutzman-Rodriguez K.R.,Colorado State University | Carver S.,University of Tasmania | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado, and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n=282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Lee J.S.,Colorado State University | Bevins S.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Serieys L.E.K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Vickers W.,University of California at Davis | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Lee J.,Colorado State University | Malmberg J.L.,Colorado State University | Wood B.A.,The Pirbright Institute | Hladky S.,Colorado State University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2017

Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates. © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Leidos Inc., The Pirbright Institute, Colorado State University, National Park Service and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016

Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate transmission, fitness, and adaptation of puma lentivirus A (PLVA) between bobcats and mountain lions in two geographic regions. Our findings illustrate that mountain lion exposure to PLVA is relatively common, but does not routinely result in infections communicable in the new host. This is attributed to efficient species barriers that largely prevent lentiviral adaptation. However, the evolutionary capacity for lentiviruses to adapt to novel environments may ultimately overcome host restriction mechanisms over time and under certain ecological circumstances. This phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to examine cross-species transmission events leading to new lentiviral emergence.


Lagana D.M.,Colorado State University | Lee J.S.,Colorado State University | Lewis J.S.,Colorado State University | Bevins S.N.,Colorado State University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n525) and Colorado (n580) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.


McBride R.,Ranchers Supply Inc. | Sensor R.,Ranchers Supply Inc.
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2015

We conducted a 2-y investigation to assess the efficacy of trail cameras to identify individual Puma concolor coryi (Florida Panther). We established 35 camera sites within the 28,328-ha northern Addition Lands region of Big Cypress National Preserve from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. To maximize the number of Florida Panthers captured, we intentionally avoided the use of transects or grids for camera-site selection. Instead, we placed cameras along known Florida Panther travel routes. We used a scent lure at each camera site to encourage Florida Panthers to linger in camera range, thereby increasing the opportunity to determine gender and observe anomalies that would aid in identification of individuals. Our cameras captured Florida Panthers 2154 times, which produced a total of 38,056 individual photos. We determined the identity of individual male Florida Panthers in 93% of captures (n = 1190 of 1278). However, the absence of anomalies in adult female Florida Panthers prevented us from identifying them consistently and with absolute certainty, despite thousands of opportunities to do so. Therefore, we relied on the morphological characteristics of dependent kittens to identify individual females in specific instances. We feel that the modifications to the camera survey (i.e., cameras placed on travel routes, high-quality digital cameras, and use of a species-specific scent lure) increased our ability to determine gender and identify individuals.


McBride R.,Ranchers Supply Inc. | Sensor R.,Ranchers Supply Inc.
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2012

While hunting Puma concolor coryi (Florida Panther) along known travel routes, we frequently observe our trained hounds alerting to Panther scent by smelling and licking the tips of overhanging limbs and the trunks of downed logs. To determine the type of Panther activity that causes this peculiar reaction from the hounds, we set trail cameras at 3 sites. From October 2010 August 2011, our cameras recorded 13 visits by 8 different panthers (4 adult males, 2 adult females, and 2 juveniles), either scent-marking objects with facial glands or responding to the residual scent left by the other Panthers. Frail cameras programmed to record time and date established that Panthers were able to detect the lingering scent of facial-gland-marked objects spanning an interval of up to 40 days. Based on the frequency our hounds alert to facial gland scent-marked objects and confirmation of identical observations from 10 professional Puma concolor (Puma) hunters in Paraguay, Mexico, and the southwestern United States, we conclude that this form of invisible communication is used often by Pumas throughout their range. This biological note represents the first photographic evidence of how wild Panthers of both genders scent-mark objects with facial glands.


Onorato D.P.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Criffield M.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Lotz M.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Cunningham M.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | And 4 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2011

Decisions regarding landscape management, restoration and land acquisition typically depend on land managers' interpretation of how wildlife selects habitat. Such assessments are particularly important for umbrella species like the endangered Florida panther Puma concolor coryi, whose survival requires vast wildlands. Some interpretations of habitat selection by panthers have been criticized for using only morning locations in defining habitat use. We assessed habitat selection using a Euclidean distance analysis and location data collected throughout the diel period from GPS collars deployed on 20 independent Florida panthers. We corroborated aspects of earlier analyses by demonstrating the selection of forested habitats by panthers. We also confirmed the selection of open habitats (i.e. marsh-shrub-swamps, prairie grasslands), a novel result. Habitat selection did not vary by sex or season but varied by time of day. Panthers were located closer to wetland forests in the daytime and used prairie grasslands more at night. Our assessment of the effect of patch size on selection of forest habitat revealed that panthers were not solely reliant on large patches (>500ha) but utilized patches of all sizes (≤1, >5-10, >1000ha, etc.). Our results emphasize the importance of collecting panther location data throughout the diel period when assessing habitat selection. Conservation strategies for panthers should consider a mosaic of habitats, a methodology that will protect other sensitive flora and fauna in South Florida. © 2010 The Authors. Animal Conservation © 2010 The Zoological Society of London.


McBride R.,Ranchers Supply Inc. | McBride C.,Ranchers Supply Inc.
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2010

Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator), ranging in size from 45.7-152.4 cm, have been identified as a Puma concolor coryi (Florida Panther) prey species. On 14 March 2008, we discovered a 269.2-cm Alligator that was killed and fed upon by a male Panther; this record is the largest one reported to date.


McBride R.,Ranchers Supply Inc. | McBride C.,Ranchers Supply Inc.
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2010

Although flehmen behavior is reported in felids, this display has been rarely documented in wild pumas. On 11 Nov. 2008, we recorded a female Puma concolor coryi (Florida Panther) exhibiting the flehmen response and scent marking in reaction to a baited trail camera site in Everglades National Park. The addition of scent lures to our camera sites increased the number of exposures per panther visit, enhancing the possibility of gender identification, an essential component of our annual survey.

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