Ramat Polytechnic

Borno State, Nigeria

Ramat Polytechnic

Borno State, Nigeria
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Ojediran J.O.,Ramat Polytechnic | Raji A.O.,University of Ibadan
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2010

Thin layer drying characteristics of two varieties of millet EX-BORNO and SOSAT C88 at air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70oC was investigated. The drying data were applied to five moisture ratio models, namely, exponential, Henderson and Pabis, page, modified page and Logarithmic. The models performance was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (r 2) and root mean square error (RMSE) relating the experimental and predicted moisture ratios through nonlinear regression analysis. The main factor controlling the drying rate was temperature and falling rate period characterised the entire drying process. The r 2 and RMSE vary between 0.969 - 0.997, 0.961 - 0.993 and 0.021 - 0.064, 0.024 - 0.0535 for SOSAT C88 and EX-BORNO respectively for the five models. The modified Page and Page drying models satisfactorily describe the drying behaviour with highest R 2 and lowest RMSE and gave best fitting curves. The effective moisture diffusivity ranged between 2.86 × 10 -9 - 5.72 × 10 -9m2/s and 1.17 × 10-9 - 2.98 × 10 -9 while the activation energy values were respectively 36.19 and 43.94 kJ/mol for SOSAT C88 and EX-BORNO varieties respectively showing that EX-BORNO requires more energy to trigger the diffusion process. © 2008 IFRJ.

Ojediran J.O.,Ramat Polytechnic | Raji A.O.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2011

The thin-layer drying behavior of gray small size and white big size varieties of castor seeds dried at 40, 50, 60 and 70C in a laboratory model tray dryer fitted with a temperature control system was investigated. Temperature was found to affect the drying characteristics with samples dried at higher temperature attaining equilibrium moisture content faster. From the five thin-layer drying equations fitted to the drying data, the modified Page model gave the best fit with highest correlation coefficients of 0.999, 0.990-0.999 and the least root mean square error of 0.010-0.013, 0.011-0.038, respectively, for the two varieties. The effective diffusivity coefficient of moisture transfer varied, respectively, from 8.24×10-9-1.81×10-8m2/s and 3.72×10-8-7.62×10-8m2/s, which are within the range for food materials. The activation energies are, respectively, 21.47kJ/mol and 18.03kJ/mol. This indicates that the diffusion process requires lower energy hence ease of drying of the castor seeds. Practical Application: Whole castor seed is extremely poisonous; however, it becomes fit for human consumption when properly processed. Drying is a fundamental unit operation in the processing of this seed which influences the physicochemical and quality characteristic of the product, hence an evaluation of the drying characteristics as a function of drying conditions could help in predicting suitable drying conditions for good quality products. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Raji A.O.,University of Ibadan | Ojediran J.O.,Ramat Polytechnic
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2011

Moisture sorption isotherms of EX-BORNO and SOSAT C88 millets at temperature range of 30-70 °C and water activity range of 0.07-0.98 were determined using the static gravimetric method. The sorption isotherms of both millet varieties decreased with increasing temperature, exhibited type II behaviour according to BET classification and hysteresis having loop size increasing with increasing temperature. This is as a result of the hard nature of the millet varieties. The moisture sorption and the data fitted well with Modified Henderson, Modified Halsey, Modified Oswin and Modified GAB models. The constants of the equations used in fitting were determined by non-linear regression analysis when the models were compared using the standard error of estimate, mean relative percent deviation, fraction explained variation and residual plots. The Modified Oswin model gave the best fit for the whole set of data. The study has provided information and data useful in large scale drying and processing of millet which have remained at the traditional level despite the importance of the drought resistance crop in poverty alleviation. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ngoshe A.A.,Ramat Polytechnic | Igwebuike J.U.,University Of Maiduguri | Adamu S.B.,University Of Maiduguri
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

A ten-week experiment was conducted to determine the haematological indices, serum chemistry and carcass characteristics, of growing rabbits fed graded levels of carrot (Daucus carota L) leaf meal. A total of 30 rabbits were randomly allocated in groups of six (6) to five dietary treatments with T1 (control), T2, T3, T4 and T5 containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% carrot leaf meal respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied to the rabbits ad libitum. The analyzed blood parameters showed significant (p<0.05) differences except for Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and White Blood Cell (WBC). Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) were generally higher in carrot leaf meal diets than the control diet (T1). Red Blood Cells (RBC) increased with increase in Carrot Leaf Meal (CLM) while Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) decreased with increase in Carrot Leaf Meal (CLM) compared to T1 (control diet). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) for serum biochemical indices among all treatments. The slaughter weight showed significant (p<0.05) differences among all treatments with rabbits on T2 (10% CLM) having the highest slaughter weight (1443.70 g) and T3 (20% CLM) having the highest dressed weight (1133.30 g). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences among the treatments for dressing percentage, head, skin, shoulder, loin, hind legs, liver, lungs and kidneys while the tail, feet, rack, heart and abdominal fat showed significant (p<0.05) differences. Based on these results, growing rabbits could tolerate up to 40% carrot leaf meal without adverse effects on their haematological parameters and carcass characteristics. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2013.

Obiukwu O.O.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Grema L.U.,Ramat Polytechnic
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD) and Poultry Droppings (PD) were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2014.

Obiukwu O.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Opara I.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Grema L.U.,Ramat Polytechnic
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to investigate the corrosion inhibition of some plant extracts on mild steel in selected media. The plant extracts investigated are Okazi leaf (Gnetum africanum), Utazi leaf (Gongronema latifolium) and Elizabeth leaf (Chromolena odaratum). The selected media are 1M HCL and H2SO4 and the corrosion rate on the mild steel was investigated using mass loss method. Results were obtained at intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency were calculated. The results revealed that Elizabeth leaf (Chromolena odaratum) has the best inhibition efficiency on mild steel followed by Okazi leaf (Gnetum africanum) and Utazi leaf (Gongronema latifolium) which also showed good inhibition efficiency. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2015.

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