Ramaderia

Barcelona, Spain

Ramaderia

Barcelona, Spain
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Allepuz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Soler M.,Ramaderia | Selga I.,Ramaderia | Aranda C.,Servei de Control de Mosquits del Consell Comarcal del Baix Llobregat | And 3 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014

To enhance early detection of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission, an integrated ecological surveillance system was implemented in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain) from 2007 to 2011. This system incorporated passive and active equine surveillance, periodical testing of chicken sentinels in wetland areas, serosurveillance wild birds and testing of adult mosquitoes. Samples from 298 equines, 100 sentinel chickens, 1086 wild birds and 39 599 mosquitoes were analysed. During these 5 years, no acute WNV infection was detected in humans or domestic animal populations in Catalonia. WNV was not detected in mosquitoes either. Nevertheless, several seroconversions in resident and migrant wild birds indicate that local WNV or other closely related flaviviruses transmission was occurring among bird populations. These data indicate that bird and mosquito surveillance can detect otherwise silent transmission of flaviviruses and give some insights regarding possible avian hosts and vectors in a European setting. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Riera S.,Seminary of Prehistoric Studies and Research | Vila S.,UdL | Esteban I.,University of Barcelona | Albert R.M.,University of Barcelona | Llop J.M.,Ramaderia
Catena | Year: 2015

A large part of Les Garrigues (Western Catalonia) is occupied by stone terraces (locally known as bancals) that were built up in the 18th century. Some soil surveys of the area noted the presence of buried, thick A horizons with a well developed crumb structure and darker colour than the present-day A horizons. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions of the soil cover both at the time of the formation of these buried soils and at the onset of terracing.The climate is semi-arid and the landscape is defined by platforms and flat-bottomed valleys. Four profiles were described from both slope and valley-floor terraces and sampled for analyses. A buried Ahb horizon appears at various depths between 40 and 180. cm, with thicknesses ranging from 35 to 160. cm, probably due to earthworks since this depends on the position of the profile within the terrace. Many of these buried soils would correspond to Phaeozems: they are identified by an Ahb having low values and chromas (usually 4 or less), a structure due to faunal activity (100% of the structural forms related to fauna either in the form of empty or infilled channels, vermic qualifier), and an organic matter content that is 1.7-3.3%, which is higher but not significantly different than the SOM content of the present day topsoils. P (Olsen) is 1-6. ppm.The present soils are non-saline and highly calcareous (> 40%), they show some calcium carbonate redistribution in the form of pseudomycelia, and biogenic calcite. Charcoal is present in some of these buried horizons, together with small ceramic fragments. These buried horizons have several common micromorphological features: a spongy, highly porous structure due to high faunal activity, frequent silt cappings, charcoal fragments, and biogenic carbonates (queras). In some cases the biogenic calcite has undergone dissolution and reprecipitated as micrite. Pollen assemblages of the buried horizons reveal a large forest cover mainly of oaks and pines, which is also corroborated by the occurrence of Quercus phytoliths; but the presence of pollen of some deciduous crops (such as cereals, Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.) at the top of the sequences points to a Upper Holocene origin of these soils. The results from the charcoal study support the presence of perennial Quercus and pines as well as shrubs in the period when the terraces were built.The available information about present day similar soils indicates that the formation of these horizons took place under a moister, milder climate in the past, compared with the present one in the study area. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Rummel L.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Rummel L.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Martinez-Abrain A.,University of La Coruña | Martinez-Abrain A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 6 more authors.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2016

Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive-reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. © 2016 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona.


Moreno-Opo R.,Ministry of Agriculture | Afonso I.,MUSIA | Jimenez J.,Institute of Research in Game Resources CSIC | Fernandez-Olalla M.,Technical University of Madrid | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Mesopredator control has long been used to alleviate the effect of elevated predation pressure on vulnerable, threatened or valuable species. However, the convenience of using mesopredator controls is technically questionable and scientifically-sound research is therefore required to evaluate the impact of predation on prey case by case. In this study we evaluated the effect of the alteration of terrestrial mesopredator dynamics on the demographic parameters of a relict capercaillie Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus population currently in decline for which the impact of predation has not previously been assessed. We used a six-year mesocarnivore removal experiment (2008-2013) together with seven-years of previous demographic information on capercaillies (1999-2007) within a before-after controlimpact (BACI) design to evaluate the effect of mesocarnivore removal on capercaillie demographic parameters and on spatial behaviour of the most frequent predatory mesocarnivores of the capercaillie (Martes spp. and red fox Vulpes vulpes). Using a dynamic siteoccupancy approach, the reduction of mesocarnivore population levels as a result of removal was clear for marten species, mainly during key months for capercaillie reproduction, but not for the red fox. Our results show that the breeding success of capercaillies was enhanced in areas where carnivores were removed and was inversely related to the occupation level of the studied mesocarnivores, although being only significant for Martes spp. Moreover, capercaillie predation rates were lower and adult survival seemingly higher in treatment during the removal phase. Cost-effective, long-term management interventions to ensure the recovery of this threatened capercaillie population are discussed in the light of the results. At our study area, the decision for implementing predation management should be included within a broader long-term conservation perspective. In this regard, a more feasible and sustainable management intervention in ecological and economic terms may be to balance the impact of mesocarnivores on capercaillies through the recovery of apex predators. © 2015 Moreno-Opo et al.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, University of Lleida, Association for the Conservation of Capercaillie ACU and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Mesopredator control has long been used to alleviate the effect of elevated predation pressure on vulnerable, threatened or valuable species. However, the convenience of using mesopredator controls is technically questionable and scientifically-sound research is therefore required to evaluate the impact of predation on prey case by case. In this study we evaluated the effect of the alteration of terrestrial mesopredator dynamics on the demographic parameters of a relict capercaillie Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus population currently in decline for which the impact of predation has not previously been assessed. We used a six-year mesocarnivore removal experiment (2008-2013) together with seven-years of previous demographic information on capercaillies (1999-2007) within a before-after control-impact (BACI) design to evaluate the effect of mesocarnivore removal on capercaillie demographic parameters and on spatial behaviour of the most frequent predatory mesocarnivores of the capercaillie (Martes spp. and red fox Vulpes vulpes). Using a dynamic site-occupancy approach, the reduction of mesocarnivore population levels as a result of removal was clear for marten species, mainly during key months for capercaillie reproduction, but not for the red fox. Our results show that the breeding success of capercaillies was enhanced in areas where carnivores were removed and was inversely related to the occupation level of the studied mesocarnivores, although being only significant for Martes spp. Moreover, capercaillie predation rates were lower and adult survival seemingly higher in treatment during the removal phase. Cost-effective, long-term management interventions to ensure the recovery of this threatened capercaillie population are discussed in the light of the results. At our study area, the decision for implementing predation management should be included within a broader long-term conservation perspective. In this regard, a more feasible and sustainable management intervention in ecological and economic terms may be to balance the impact of mesocarnivores on capercaillies through the recovery of apex predators.


Palazon S.,Ramaderia | Melero Y.,University of Barcelona | Gomez A.,Tragsatec | Lopez De Luzuriaga J.,Asociacion Vison Europeo | And 2 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2012

Abstract Human intervention is the main cause of the decline of the Critically Endangered European mink Mustela lutreola. In this study we analysed the main causes of direct human-caused mortality of the species in Spain. A total of 47 mortality records were obtained for the period 1950-1989, and 145 for 1990-2008. There was temporal variation in the cause of death, with trapping and shooting being the most common causes of mortality in 1950-1989 and road-kills in 1990-2008. In the case of road-kills there was variation related to road type. Males were more affected by road-kills than females, especially during the mating season when they range more widely. Our results indicate that there has been a change in human social behaviour and in people's awareness of the species, with a reduction in European mink captured and shot but an increase in mortality on roads. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.


Rosell C.,Minuartia | Rosell C.,University of Barcelona | Navas F.,Minuartia | Romero S.,Ramaderia
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Reproduction of wild boar in a cropland and coastal wetland area: implications for management.- The reproductive parameters of a wild boar population located in a coastal landscape with a mosaic of cropland and wetland habitats were analysed and compared with those observed in wild boar populations living in other habitats. A total of 296 reproductive tracts of females captured year round at the Aiguamolls de l'Empordà Natural Park were collected and analysed from 2000 to 2010. The foetuses were counted, sexed and aged and the mating and birth periods were determined. The weight and age of each female were also recorded. In accordance with the pattern observed in most European populations, a marked main mating season from October to January was observed. Within this season, there was a peak during November and December, in which 64% of the conception dates were recorded. The proportion of breeding females, ovulation rate and litter size increased with the weight of the reproductive females. A mean litter size of 5.01 ± 1.33 (range from two to eight) foetuses was recorded. This value is the highest known litter size recorded in wild Iberian populations and is similar to values observed in central Europe. Furthermore, it is not in accordance with the pattern reported for other European populations in which a positive correlation between litter size and latitude was observed. The most likely explanation for the high reproductive output in the study area is the availability of food year round, and especially the high consumption of crops such as maize and sunflower. Our results suggest that colonisation of cropland and wetland areas is contributing to the rise in the wild boar population density. Control strategies should consider not only reducing numbers of adult females but also applying measures to reduce food resources available to wild boar. © 2012 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona.


Perez de Val B.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Vidal E.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Lopez-Soria S.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Marco A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed.BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination.BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. © 2016.


PubMed | IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ramaderia, Autonomous University of Barcelona and Lionex Diagnostics and Therapeutics GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN- responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible.


Boixadera J.,Ramaderia | Boixadera J.,University of Lleida | Poch R.M.,University of Lleida | Lowick S.E.,University of Bern | Balasch J.C.,University of Lleida
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Wind-blown sandy and silty deposits were formed during the late Quaternary in the NE Iberian Peninsula. They are the most significant in the West Mediterranean region, together with those described in the Tagus River basin (Iberian South Subplateau), forming small scattered patches across parts of the SE Ebro Depression and SW Catalan Mediterranean Range. Two major depositional environments are distinguished. The first (largest) outcrop covers the lower Ebro reaches on the SE border of the Ebro Depression, the Prelitoral Coastal Range and the Móra d'Ebre Basin. A second outcrop, to the north, consists of a few patches scattered over a wide amphitheatre surrounding the western tributaries of the Segre River, from the wind-exposed Segrià platforms to the Almenara Range in its northernmost part. They consist of highly sorted fine sands and silts, 1-12m thick (though most typically 3-4m thick), and coarser than typical loess. They are highly uniform, lack any sedimentary structures and are pale ochre. The deposits are calcareous (30-45% CaCO3), basic to alkaline and with some soluble salts. Five selected sequences of primary loess (namely Mas de l'Alerany, Tivissa, Guiamets, Batea and Almenara) were studied to ascertain deposit characteristics and soil development. All sections show a consistent vertical granulometric variability that may be attributed to wind intensity changes, and hinders the recognition of spatial particle size distribution. Pedogenesis is mostly related to calcium carbonate redistribution, which accumulates as nodules, large rhizocretions or biogenic calcite. Secondary gypsum (Batea and Almenara sequences) is probably related to primary gypsum blown from the source areas that was redistributed by leaching and precipitation at the bottom of the profiles. In a few places (Mas de l'Alerany outcrop) a fersialitic, rubefacted-recalcified soil indicates the presence of an older generation of loess. While the dominant WNW winds and particle coarseness suggest that the loess originates from nearby alluvial fans and fluvial plains, the presence of gypsum and Mg anomalies may be evidence of more distant sources of the Central Ebro Depression and Ondara-Corb alluvial fans. Optical Stimulated Luminiscence (OSL) ages for the more recent deposits (Guiamets, Batea, Almenara) are between 18 and 34ka, while the old Mas de l'Alerany sequence is more than 115ka. These ages indicate loess deposition during the last cold phases of the Quaternary and with pedogenesis occuring during warm interglacial periods. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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