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Takacsi-Nagy A.,University of Pecs | Kilar F.,University of Pecs | Pager C.,University of Pecs | Mosher R.A.,RAM Software Solutions | Thormann W.,University of Bern
Electrophoresis | Year: 2012

The impact of initial sample distribution on separation and focusing of analytes in a pH 3-11 gradient formed by 101 biprotic carrier ampholytes under concomitant electroosmotic displacement was studied by dynamic high-resolution computer simulation. Data obtained with application of the analytes mixed with the carrier ampholytes (as is customarily done), as a short zone within the initial carrier ampholyte zone, sandwiched between zones of carrier ampholytes, or introduced before or after the initial carrier ampholyte zone were compared. With sampling as a short zone within or adjacent to the carrier ampholytes, separation and focusing of analytes is shown to proceed as a cationic, anionic, or mixed process and separation of the analytes is predicted to be much faster than the separation of the carrier components. Thus, after the initial separation, analytes continue to separate and eventually reach their focusing locations. This is different to the double-peak approach to equilibrium that takes place when analytes and carrier ampholytes are applied as a homogenous mixture. Simulation data reveal that sample application between two zones of carrier ampholytes results in the formation of a pH gradient disturbance as the concentration of the carrier ampholytes within the fluid element initially occupied by the sample will be lower compared to the other parts of the gradient. As a consequence thereof, the properties of this region are sample matrix dependent, the pH gradient is flatter, and the region is likely to represent a conductance gap (hot spot). Simulation data suggest that sample placed at the anodic side or at the anodic end of the initial carrier ampholyte zone are the favorable configurations for capillary isoelectric focusing with electroosmotic zone mobilization. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Mosher R.A.,RAM Software Solutions | Breadmore M.C.,University of Tasmania | Thormann W.,University of Bern
Electrophoresis | Year: 2011

Three comprehensive one-dimensional simulators were used on the same PC to simulate the dynamics of different electrophoretic configurations, including two migrating hybrid boundaries, an isotachophoretic boundary and the zone electrophoretic separation of ten monovalent anions. Two simulators, SIMUL5 and GENTRANS, use a uniform grid, while SPRESSO uses a dynamic adaptive grid. The simulators differ in the way components are handled. SIMUL5 and SPRESSO feature one equation for all components, whereas GENTRANS is based on the use of separate modules for the different types of monovalent components, a module for multivalent components and a module for proteins. The code for multivalent components is executed more slowly compared to those for monovalent components. Furthermore, with SIMUL5, the computational time interval becomes smaller when it is operated with a reduced calculation space that features moving borders, whereas GENTRANS offers the possibility of using data smoothing (removal of negative concentrations), which can avoid numerical oscillations and speed up a simulation. SPRESSO with its adaptive grid could be employed to simulate the same configurations with smaller numbers of grid points and thus is faster in certain but not all cases. The data reveal that simulations featuring a large number of monovalent components distributed such that a high mesh is required throughout a large proportion of the column are fastest executed with GENTRANS. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Thormann W.,University of Bern | Caslavska J.,University of Bern | Mosher R.A.,RAM Software Solutions
Electrophoresis | Year: 2015

A computer simulation study describing the electrophoretic separation and migration of methadone enantiomers in presence of free and immobilized (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-CD is presented. The 1:1 interaction of methadone with the neutral CD was simulated by using experimentally determined mobilities and complexation constants for the complexes in a low-pH BGE comprising phosphoric acid and KOH. The use of complex mobilities represents free solution conditions with the chiral selector being a buffer additive, whereas complex mobilities set to zero provide data that mimic migration and separation with the chiral selector being immobilized, that is CEC conditions in absence of unspecific interaction between analytes and the chiral stationary phase. Simulation data reveal that separations are quicker, electrophoretic displacement rates are reduced, and sensitivity is enhanced in CEC with on-column detection in comparison to free solution conditions. Simulation is used to study electrophoretic analyte behavior at the interface between sample and the CEC column with the chiral selector (analyte stacking) and at the rear end when analytes leave the environment with complexation (analyte destacking). The latter aspect is relevant for off-column analyte detection in CEC and is described here for the first time via the dynamics of migrating analyte zones. Simulation provides insight into means to counteract analyte dilution at the column end via use of a BGE with higher conductivity. Furthermore, the impact of EOF on analyte migration, separation, and detection for configurations with the selector zone being displaced or remaining immobilized under buffer flow is simulated. In all cases, the data reveal that detection should occur within or immediately after the selector zone. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Thormann W.,University of Bern | Breadmore M.C.,University of Tasmania | Caslavska J.,University of Bern | Mosher R.A.,RAM Software Solutions
Electrophoresis | Year: 2010

Software is available, which simulates all basic electrophoretic systems, including moving boundary electrophoresis, zone electrophoresis, ITP, IEF and EKC, and their combinations under almost exactly the same conditions used in the laboratory. These dynamic models are based upon equations derived from the transport concepts such as electromigration, diffusion, electroosmosis and imposed hydrodynamic buffer flow that are applied to user-specified initial distributions of analytes and electrolytes. They are able to predict the evolution of electrolyte systems together with associated properties such as pH and conductivity profiles and are as such the most versatile tool to explore the fundamentals of electrokinetic separations and analyses. In addition to revealing the detailed mechanisms of fundamental phenomena that occur in electrophoretic separations, dynamic simulations are useful for educational purposes. This review includes a list of current high-resolution simulators, information on how a simulation is performed, simulation examples for zone electrophoresis, ITP, IEF and EKC and a comprehensive discussion of the applications and achievements. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Caslavska J.,University of Bern | Mosher R.A.,RAM Software Solutions | Thormann W.,University of Bern
Electrophoresis | Year: 2015

Application of pressure-driven laminar flow has an impact on zone and boundary dispersion in open tubular CE. The GENTRANS dynamic simulator for electrophoresis was extended with Taylor-Aris diffusivity which accounts for dispersion due to the parabolic flow profile associated with pressure-driven flow. Effective diffusivity of analyte and system zones as functions of the capillary diameter and the amount of flow in comparison to molecular diffusion alone were studied for configurations with concomitant action of imposed hydrodynamic flow and electroosmosis. For selected examples under realistic experimental conditions, simulation data are compared with those monitored experimentally using modular CE setups featuring both capacitively coupled contactless conductivity and UV absorbance detection along a 50 μm id fused-silica capillary of 90 cm total length. The data presented indicate that inclusion of flow profile based Taylor-Aris diffusivity provides realistic simulation data for analyte and system peaks, particularly those monitored in CE with conductivity detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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