Kent, WA, United States
Kent, WA, United States

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Cohen S.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Gordon E.B.,Elliot Gordon Consulting LLC | Singh P.,Raleigh America | Arce G.T.,Arce Consulting | Nyska A.,Toxicologic Pathology Consultant
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2010

A framework has been evolving for evaluation of mode of action (MOA) of rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity findings and their relevance to humans. Folpet produces duodenal glandular tumors in mice, but is not carcinogenic in rats. A wealth of information is available regarding folpet's mode of action, providing an excellent example of how this tumor can be evaluated using this framework. Folpet reacts with thiol groups, and is rapidly hydrolyzed at pH 7. Both reactions produce thiophosgene that reacts with thiols and other functional groups. Folpet is not genotoxic in vivo. At sufficiently high, prolonged dietary doses, folpet irritates the mouse duodenum, resulting in cytotoxicity with consequent regenerative proliferation and ultimately tumor development. Forestomach lesions secondary to cytotoxicity are also induced. Dogs have stomachs similar to humans and show no evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity or tumor formation at exposure levels at least as high as rodents. The data support a MOA in mice involving cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. Based on MOA analysis and assessment of human relevance, folpet, like captan, another trichloromethylthio-related fungicide with similar toxic and carcinogenic effects, is not likely to be a human carcinogen at dose levels that do not cause cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Arce G.T.,Arce Consulting | Gordon E.B.,Elliot Gordon Consulting LLC | Cohen S.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Singh P.,Raleigh America
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2010

Folpet and captan are fungicides whose genotoxicity depends on their chemical reaction with thiols. Multiple mutagenicity tests have been conducted on these compounds due to their positive activity in vitro and their association with gastrointestinal tumors in mice. A review of the collective data shows that these compounds have in vitro mutagenic activity but are not genotoxic in vivo. This dichotomy is primarily due to the rapid degradation of folpet and captan in the presence of thiol-rich matrices typically found in vivo. Genotoxicity has not been found in the duodenum, the mouse tumor target tissue. It is concluded that folpet like captan presents an unlikely risk of genotoxic effects in humans. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Youngsteadt E.,North Carolina State University | Henderson R.C.,North Carolina State University | Henderson R.C.,Raleigh America | Savage A.M.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2010-11-09

Bicycles.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2010-10-05

Bicycles.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2012-08-14

Bicycles.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2012-01-17

Bicycles.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2011-10-25

Bicycles.


Trademark
Raleigh America | Date: 2011-10-25

Bicycles.


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