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News Article | June 22, 2017
Site: news.europawire.eu

A team of students and staff from the University of Bristol are designing a volcano monitoring satellite as part of the University’s satellite programme. The group of 17 students and academics have been given unique access to the Concurrent Design Facility at the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s (STFC) RAL Space, to design the University’s first CubeSat. BRISTOL, 22-Jun-2017 — /EuropaWire/ — The project, initially funded by the UK Space Agency, will take several years to complete.  Once designed and built, the new satellite will observe volcanoes from space and take 3D images of ash clouds. The team will be working on the design of the satellite and will be mentored by RAL Space experts in a special Concurrent Design Facility.  Concurrent engineering puts all design engineers and required tools together with the user in the same location at the same time. This allows for iterative design at a fast pace, with user and designers agreeing requirements and taking decisions in real time. Dr Lucy Berthoud, Space Systems Lecturer in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, said: “This is the first time that RAL Space have allowed students to use their facility.  We are really excited for our students to have the opportunity to work in this state-of-the-art facility and would like to thank RAL Space and the UK Space Agency for helping to make this happen.” Dr Matt Watson, Reader in Natural Hazards from the School of Earth Sciences, added: “It is really unusual for UK universities to build a satellite.  Once the satellite has been launched, we hope to receive ground-breaking images of volcanic ash. It is great that space experts and students have come together to work on the project and we are delighted that we are encouraging the next generation of space scientists and engineers.” Jenny Jobling, a 4th year Aerospace engineering student said: “Working on a real-life mission is very motivating for us, it’s a unique opportunity.” Dr Dan Peters, from RAL Space, concluded: “It’s been fun working with students, we’ve tested our facility in new and different ways and it’s been fascinating to watch the mission come into focus. It’s great to be training the next generation of scientists and engineers to use concurrent design.” The project team includes aerospace engineers Dr Lucy Berthoud and Dr Mark Schenk who will work with Bristol’s award-winning volcanology colleagues: Dr Matt Watson and Dr Helen Thomas. During the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in 2010, European airspace closure resulted in costs of £200 million a day for airlines. About RAL Space RAL Space, based at STFC’s Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), carries out an exciting range of world-class space research and technology development. We have significant involvement in over 200 space missions and are at the forefront of UK Space Research. Our 200 staff are dedicated to supporting the programmes of the STFC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), as well as undertaking a large number of space projects for UK and overseas agencies, universities and industrial companies. We undertake world-leading space research and technology development, provide space test and ground-based facilities, design and build instruments, analyse and process data and operate S- and X-band ground-station facilities, as well as lead conceptual studies for future missions. We work with space and ground-based groups around the world. About the UK Space Agency The UK Space Agency is at the centre of space research in the UK. It was officially launched on the 23 March 2010, and on the 1 April 2011 became a full executive body of BIS (now Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) ), responsible for all UK space activities. This is a huge sector, with a turnover of £9.1 billion in 2010/11, and has helped to revolutionise a wide range of crucial areas including telecommunications services, security and TV broadcasting.


Harwell Campus SWINDON, 27-Feb-2017 — /EuropaWire/ — A major new £100 million investment by the government into the development of an innovative multi-disciplinary science and technology research centre was announced today (Thursday 23 February 2017) by Business Secretary Greg Clark. The new Rosalind Franklin Institute (RFI) – named in honour of the pioneering British scientist whose use of X-rays to study biological structures played a crucial role in the discovery of DNA‘s ‘double helix’ structure by Francis Crick and James Watson – will bring together UK strengths in the physical sciences, engineering and life sciences to create a national centre of excellence in technology development and innovation. The new Rosalind Franklin Institute will have a hub based at the Harwell campus It will bring together UK expertise to develop new technologies that will transform our understanding of disease and speed up the development of new treatments Part of the government’s Industrial Strategy to maintain the UK’s global leadership in science, innovation and research Business Secretary Greg Clark said: The UK has always been a pioneer in the world of science, technology and medical research. It’s this excellence we want to continue to build on and why we made science and research a central part of our Industrial Strategy – strengthening links between research and industry, ensuring more home-grown innovation continues to benefit millions around the world. Named after one of the UK’s leading chemists, the new Rosalind Franklin Institute will inspire and house scientists who could be responsible for the next great discovery that will maintain the UK’s position at the forefront of global science for years to come. Delivered and managed by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), the RFI will bring together academic and industry researchers from across the UK to develop disruptive new technologies designed to tackle major challenges in health and life sciences, accelerate the discovery of new treatments for chronic diseases affecting millions of people around the world (such as dementia), and deliver new jobs and long-term growth to the local and UK economies. Chair of the Research Councils and EPSRC Chief Executive, Professor Philip Nelson said: The UK is currently in a world leading position when it comes to developing new medical treatments and technologies in the life sciences. However, other countries are alive to the potential and are already investing heavily. The Rosalind Franklin Institute will help secure the country as one of the best places in the world to research, discover, and innovate. The central hub at Harwell will link to partner sites at the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Manchester and Oxford, Imperial College, King’s College London, and University College London. Industry partners will be on board from the outset, and the Institute will grow over time, as more universities and researchers participate. The work at new Institute will contribute directly to the delivery of EPSRC‘s ‘Healthy Nation’ prosperity outcome, its Healthcare Technologies programme, and to the Technology Touching Life initiative that spans three research councils (the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Medical Research Council (MRC) and EPSRC) and seeks to foster interdisciplinary technology development research across the engineering, physical and life sciences. The development of the RFI has been led by Professor Ian Walmsley, FRS, from the University of Oxford, who said: This is a new joint venture between some of the UK’s leading universities and key partners in industry and research councils. The aim is to speed the application of cutting-edge physical science insights, methods and techniques to health and life sciences by providing an interface between research programmes at the forefront of these areas, co-located at Harwell and connected, dynamically, to the wider UK research base. We anticipate innovative new businesses will grow from this effort over time, as the Institute will engage with a range of key industries from inception. A collaborative joint venture model allows the RFI to make the most of interactions and draw on a wide range of existing research excellence from across the UK. Patrick Vallance, President of R&D at GSK said: We welcome the creation of the RFI which will bring world-leading, multi-disciplinary teams from industry and academia closer together, and will further strengthen the UK as a place to translate excellent science into patient benefit. Through collaboration we will be able to make advances in life science technologies much quicker than we could manage alone. Research at the RFI will initially be centred on five selected technology themes, focusing on next-generation imaging technologies – X-ray science, correlated imaging (combining X-ray, electron and light microscopy), imaging by sound and light, and biological mass spectrometry – and on new chemical methods and strategies for drug discovery. Dame Carol Robinson, FRS, who is leading the RFI‘s biological mass spectrometry theme, and received the 2004 Royal Society Rosalind Franklin Award that recognises outstanding scientific contributions and supports the promotion of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, said: It is fitting that this new Institute bears Rosalind Franklin’s name. She achieved so much in a relatively short life and without her work many of the advances that have taken place since would not have come about. Work in the Institute will include development of the next-generation of physical tools including mass spectrometry, instruments for X-ray science and for advanced microscopy – fields directly descended from her research interests. Notes for Editors: The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) As the main funding agency for engineering and physical sciences research, our vision is for the UK to be the best place in the world to Research, Discover and Innovate. By investing £800 million a year in research and postgraduate training, we are building the knowledge and skills base needed to address the scientific and technological challenges facing the nation. Our portfolio covers a vast range of fields from healthcare technologies to structural engineering, manufacturing to mathematics, advanced materials to chemistry. The research we fund has impact across all sectors. It provides a platform for future economic development in the UK and improvements for everyone’s health, lifestyle and culture. We work collectively with our partners and other Research Councils on issues of common concern via Research Councils UK. The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) STFC is keeping the UK at the forefront of international science and tackling some of the most significant challenges facing society such as meeting our future energy needs, monitoring and understanding climate change, and global security. The Council has a broad science portfolio and works with the academic and industrial communities to share its expertise in materials science, space and ground-based astronomy technologies, laser science, microelectronics, wafer scale manufacturing, particle and nuclear physics, alternative energy production, radio communications and radar. STFC operates or hosts world class experimental facilities including in the UK the ISIS pulsed neutron source, the Central Laser Facility, and LOFAR, and is also the majority shareholder in Diamond Light Source Ltd. It enables UK researchers to access leading international science facilities by funding membership of international bodies including European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). STFC is one of seven publicly-funded research councils. It is an independent, non-departmental public body of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) BBSRC invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond. Funded by Government, BBSRC invested £473M in world-class bioscience, people and research infrastructure in 2015-16. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. More information about BBSRC strategically funded institutes. The Medical Research Council (MRC) The Medical Research Council is at the forefront of scientific discovery to improve human health. Founded in 1913 to tackle tuberculosis, the MRC now invests taxpayers’ money in some of the best medical research in the world across every area of health. Thirty-one MRC-funded researchers have won Nobel prizes in a wide range of disciplines, and MRC scientists have been behind such diverse discoveries as vitamins, the structure of DNA and the link between smoking and cancer, as well as achievements such as pioneering the use of randomised controlled trials, the invention of MRI scanning, and the development of a group of antibodies used in the making of some of the most successful drugs ever developed. Today, MRC-funded scientists tackle some of the greatest health problems facing humanity in the 21st century, from the rising tide of chronic diseases associated with ageing to the threats posed by rapidly mutating micro-organisms. www.mrc.ac.uk Diamond Light Source Diamond Light Source is the UK’s synchrotron science facility, and is approximately the size of Wembley Stadium. It works like a giant microscope, harnessing the power of electrons to produce bright light that scientists can use to study anything from fossils to jet engines to viruses and vaccines. Diamond is used by thousands of academic and industrial researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including structural biology, health and medicine, solid-state physics, materials & magnetism, nanoscience, electronics, earth & environmental sciences, chemistry, cultural heritage, energy and engineering. Many everyday commodities that we take for granted, from food manufacturing to consumer products, from revolutionary drugs to surgical tools, from computers to mobile phones, have all been developed or improved using synchrotron light. Diamond generates extremely intense pin-point beams of synchrotron light. These are of exceptional quality, and range from X-rays to ultraviolet to infrared. Diamond’s X-rays are around 10 billion times brighter than the sun. Diamond is one of the most advanced scientific facilities in the world, and its pioneering capabilities are helping to keep the UK at the forefront of scientific research. 2017 marks a double celebration for Diamond – 15 years since the company was formed, and 10 years of research and innovation. In this time, researchers who have obtained their data at Diamond have authored over 5,000 papers. The institute is funded by the UK Government through the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), and by the Wellcome Trust The Harwell Campus Harwell Campus is a public private partnership between Harwell Oxford Partners, U+I Group PLC and two Government backed agencies, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the UK Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA). Harwell is one of the world’s most important science and innovation locations. It has a growing reputation as the UK’s gateway to space with over 65 space and satellite applications related organisations located on campus and is now seeing rapid growth in the Life Sciences and HealthTec sector with over 1,000 people working in this field alone at Harwell. In addition to space and life sciences, the campus hosts an array of other key sectors including, Big Data and Supercomputing, Energy and Environment and Advanced Engineering and Materials. With a legacy of many world firsts, the campus comprises 710 acres, over 200 organisations and 5,500 people. Harwell Campus is the UK’s National Science Facility and is among Europe and the world’s leading sites dedicated to the advancement of science, technology and innovation. Having spent 75 years at the forefront of British innovation and discovery, Harwell Campus continues to drive scientific advancements to the benefit of the UK economy and centred around a community hub. Science experts, academics, government organisations, private sector R&D departments and investors create an environment where innovation, collaboration and discovery thrive. Harwell’s Cluster Strategy The Cluster of about 70 Space organisations at Harwell is testament to the power of co-locating industry, academia and the public sector alongside investors and entrepreneurs. The European Space Agency, RAL Space, The UK Space Agency, Airbus, Thales Alenia Space, Lockheed Martin, and Deimos Space UK can all be found on the Campus. This creates many opportunities for collaboration, increasing capability and sharing risk. Being within a Cluster brings access to high-quality common infrastructure, facilities and expertise, alongside exposure to new markets The Harwell vision is to be home to a number of Clusters that exploit the existing strengths of the Campus. The next step is a new HealthTec Cluster that will benefit from the considerable synergies across the life and physical sciences capabilities of the Campus and the Space cluster. These clusters will enrich each other, creating a powerful multidisciplinary environment tailored to problem solving that will allow the UK to compete with the best in the world. The clustering of industries, facilities and science experts has given rise to the term Harwell Effect – and is an ideal model for future science and business innovation programmes. Science clusters drive economic growth. MIT has created businesses with a combined value of $3tn, the equivalent of California’s GDP. Harwell Campus is the only location in the UK with the potential to emulate this success. To find out more about events, open days or the new developments, visit the Harwell Campus website. SOURCE: EPSRC Contact Details In the following table, contact information relevant to the page. The first column is for visual reference only. Data is in the right column. Name: EPSRC Press Office Telephone: 01793 444404


Mostl C.,University of Graz | Mostl C.,University of California at Berkeley | Mostl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Amla K.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s-1). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of -26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s-1. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s-1. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Shugarov A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Savanov I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Sachkov M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Jerram P.,E2v Technologies | And 6 more authors.
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2014

The WUVS (WSO-UV Ultra Violet Spectrographs) consists of two high resolution spectrographs (R=50000) covering the Far-UV range of 115–176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174–310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph (R=1000) covering the wavelength range of 115–305 nm. Significant progress in the CCD development gives a possibility to use back-illuminated CCD detectors with anti-reflection coating for observations in the UV. These detectors are under construction by e2v company (UK) based on their heritage of detectors production for numerous space missions including those for UV- and far-UV. The main parameters of WUVS detector subsystems are described. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Aplin K.L.,University of Oxford | Goodman T.,University of Oxford | Herpoldt K.L.,University of Oxford | Herpoldt K.L.,Imperial College London | And 2 more authors.
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2012

Electrical discharges in Martian analogue materials have previously been generated by agitation of the material in a low-pressure carbon dioxide environment. These results have led to the supposition that lightning is likely on Mars, on the basis that the surface material becomes triboelectrically charged, and the charges are then gravitationally separated in dust storms. We have reproduced one of these experiments and find that triboelectric charging of the Martian regolith simulant by the walls of the vessel used can adequately explain all the effects observed. Our results indicate that unless special care is taken to avoid wall effects, the electrostatic properties of a laboratory system cannot be extrapolated to the Martian environment. We also note that charging of the outside of the vessel used can generate transients within the vessel which could be mistaken for electrical discharge signals, unless accompanied by optical emissions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mostl C.,University of California at Berkeley | Mostl C.,University of Graz | Mostl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Farrugia C.J.,University of New Hampshire | And 25 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120° in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Mostl C.,University of Graz | Mostl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Rollett T.,University of Graz | Rollett T.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-Φ (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350kms -1) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30° elongation to obtain arrival time errors < ± 5hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Aplin K.L.,University of Oxford | Bowles N.E.,University of Oxford | Urbak E.,University of Oxford | Keane D.,RAL Space | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2011

Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.


Xiong M.,Aberystwyth University | Xiong M.,Sigma Group | Davies J.A.,RAL Space | Bisi M.M.,Aberystwyth University | And 3 more authors.
Solar Physics | Year: 2013

Stereoscopic white-light imaging of a large portion of the inner heliosphere has been used to track interplanetary coronal mass ejections. At large elongations from the Sun, the white-light brightness depends on both the local electron density and the efficiency of the Thomson-scattering process. To quantify the effects of the Thomson-scattering geometry, we study an interplanetary shock using forward magnetohydrodynamic simulation and synthetic white-light imaging. Identifiable as an inclined streak of enhanced brightness in a time-elongation map, the travelling shock can be readily imaged by an observer located within a wide range of longitudes in the ecliptic. Different parts of the shock front contribute to the imaged brightness pattern viewed by observers at different longitudes. Moreover, even for an observer located at a fixed longitude, a different part of the shock front will contribute to the imaged brightness at any given time. The observed brightness within each imaging pixel results from a weighted integral along its corresponding ray-path. It is possible to infer the longitudinal location of the shock from the brightness pattern in an optical sky map, based on the east-west asymmetry in its brightness and degree of polarisation. Therefore, measurement of the interplanetary polarised brightness could significantly reduce the ambiguity in performing three-dimensional reconstruction of local electron density from white-light imaging. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Mostl C.,University of California at Berkeley | Mostl C.,University of Graz | Davies J.A.,RAL Space
Solar Physics | Year: 2013

The NASA Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission offered the possibility to forecast the arrival times, speeds, and directions of solar transients from outside the Sun-Earth line. In particular, we are interested in predicting potentially geoeffective interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) from observations of density structures at large observation angles from the Sun (with the STEREO Heliospheric Imager instrument). We contribute to this endeavor by deriving analytical formulas concerning a geometric correction for the ICME speed and arrival time for the technique introduced by Davies et al. (Astrophys. J., 2012, in press), called self-similar expansion fitting (SSEF). This model assumes that a circle propagates outward, along a plane specified by a position angle (e. g., the ecliptic), with constant angular half-width (λ). This is an extension to earlier, more simple models: fixed-Φ fitting (λ=0°) and harmonic mean fitting (λ=90°). In contrast to previous models, this approach has the advantage of allowing one to assess clearly if a particular location in the heliosphere, such as a planet or spacecraft, might be expected to be hit by the ICME front. Our correction formulas are especially significant for glancing hits, where small differences in the direction greatly influence the expected speeds (up to 100 - 200 km s-1) and arrival times (up to two days later than the apex). For very wide ICMEs (2λ>120°), the geometric correction becomes very similar to the one derived by Möstl et al. (Astrophys. J. 741, 34, 2011) for the harmonic mean model. These analytic expressions can also be used for empirical or analytical models to predict the 1 AU arrival time of an ICME by correcting for effects of hits by the flank rather than the apex, if the width and direction of the ICME in a plane are known and a circular geometry of the ICME front is assumed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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