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Ebetsu, Japan

Rakuno Gakuen University is a private university in Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan, established in 1960. Its name, Rakunō , refers to the university's predecessor, a public school teaching dairy farming that was founded in 1933. Its specializations remain agriculture and veterinary medicine to this day. Gakuen means simply "school" , being part of its former names. Wikipedia.

Minamikawa K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Nishimura S.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sawamoto T.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Nakajima Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Yagi K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Global Change Biology

Indirect emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), associated with nitrogen (N) leaching and runoff from agricultural lands is a major source of atmospheric N2O. Recent studies have shown that carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are also emitted via these pathways. We measured the concentrations of three dissolved greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the subsurface drainage from field lysimeter that had a shallow groundwater table. Above-ground fluxes of CH4 and N2O were monitored using an automated closed-chamber system. The annual total emissions of dissolved and aboveground GHGs were compared among three cropping systems; paddy rice, soybean and wheat, and upland rice. The annual drainage in the paddy rice, the soybean and wheat, and the upland rice plots was 1435, 782, and 1010 mm yr-1, respectively. Dissolved CO2 emissions were highest in the paddy rice plots, and were equivalent to 1.05-1.16% of the carbon storage in the topsoil. Dissolved CH4 emissions were also higher in the paddy rice plots, but were only 0.03-0.05% of the aboveground emissions. Dissolved N2O emissions were highest in the upland rice plots, where leached N was greatest due to small crop biomass. In the soybean and wheat plots, large crop biomass, due to double cropping, decreased the drainage volume, and thus decreased dissolved GHG emissions. Dissolved N2O emissions from both the soybean and wheat plots and the upland rice plots were equivalent to 50.3-67.3% of the aboveground emissions. The results indicate that crop type and rotation are important factors in determining dissolved GHG emissions in the drainage from a crop field. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Tharwat M.,Zagazig University | Oikawa S.,Rakuno Gakuen University
Tropical Animal Health and Production

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cattle and buffaloes with respiratory disorders, determine the extent of the lesions, and assess prognosis. The results were compared with the findings determined following physical examination and at slaughter. Animals were referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospitals because of inappetance, loss of body condition, cough, dyspnea, and nasal discharges. Ultrasonographically, it was possible to detect bronchopneumonia, consolidation, pleural effusion, pulmonary emphysema, and pleuritis. It was not possible to visualize lesions located deeper within the lungs where peripheral tissue was not affected. Laboratory findings included a neutrophilic leukocytosis, γ-globulinemia, and increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase. A diagnosis of respiratory disease was made on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic findings and confirmed in 25 cases at slaughter. Bovine ultrasonography appears to be suitable as a screening tool for detection of pathologic lung processes near the pleura. Thoracic ultrasonography allows assessment of the extent and severity of pulmonary changes so that further evaluations can be considered. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Sugiyama M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Ae N.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Hajika M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Plant and Soil

Significant inter-cultivar differences of soybean seed cadmium (Cd) concentrations arise from the inter-cultivar differences in root Cd accumulation ability. The Cd concentration in the shoots of plants at the vegetative stage is already controlled by the roots Cd concentration in the same way that it determines seed Cd concentration. Based on these results we conjectured that there is no need to wait until the full maturity stage because the inter-cultivar difference in seed Cd concentration can be predicted from the Cd concentration in the shoots of seedlings. To test this theory, we cultivated 150 cultivars/lines to the harvest stage in a field not contaminated with Cd and measured seed Cd concentration. We also planted seeds in pots filled with contaminated soil, cultivated them for 3 weeks, and measured the Cd concentration of the seedling obtained at the 5th-node (V5) stage when the 4th trifoliolate leaf had expanded. The 150 cultivars/lines were roughly divided into 2 groups based on the relationship between these 2 Cd concentrations. One group was cultivars in which seedlings and seeds both had low Cd concentrations (low Cd accumulation group, n = 129), and the other group was the opposite (high Cd accumulation group, n = 21). Further, when we predicted seed Cd concentration using the ratio of Cd and Zn concentrations in seedlings, we were able to clearly divide the 2 groups with no overlap. Measuring Cd/Zn in seedlings therefore makes it possible to select cultivars with low Cd accumulation tendency readily, without waiting to harvest the seeds. Additionally, by investigating genealogies we found that varieties in the high-Cd accumulation group were descended from certain cultivars such as Harosoy. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Enari H.,Kyoto University | Suzuki T.,Rakuno Gakuen University
Landscape and Urban Planning

The management of human-wildlife conflicts often involves walking the fine line between conservation of the species concerned and damage control. This article documents conflict management with Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. Although these monkeys are listed as endangered populations in Japan, local residents consider them serious vertebrate pests. In order to devise a reasonable population recovery plan that also serves to minimize the risk of social damage caused by these monkeys, the authors invent a simplified procedure for broadly assessing damage risk. Two indices are analyzed: species accessibility, estimated via an accessibility analysis that uses ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA), and regional weakness to damage, calculated by evaluating the geographical placement of human settlements. ENFA shows that in northern Japan, most of the potential monkey habitats are not occupied by the species; therefore, the species distribution is expected to expand. The weakness values demonstrate that the municipalities expected to suffer damage in the near future are more vulnerable to damage than the already-damaged ones. A risk map is generated through a consideration of these results. It indicates that the conflicts will increase if no precautionary actions are taken. This risk mapping approach assists in identifying the municipalities where precautionary actions should be taken to efficiently minimize the overall risk in the reference area. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tanaka F.,Kyoto University | Koga T.,Kyoto University | Kaneda I.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Winnik F.M.,University of Montreal
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter

The collapse of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chain upon heating and the phase diagrams of aqueous PNIPAM solutions with a very flat lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation line are theoretically studied on the basis of cooperative dehydration (simultaneous dissociation of bound water molecules in a group of correlated sequence), and compared with the experimental observation of temperature-induced coil-globule transition by light scattering methods. The transition becomes sharper with the cooperativity parameter σ of hydration. The reentrant coil-globule-coil transition and cononsolvency in a mixed solvent of water and methanol are also studied from the viewpoint of competitive hydrogen bonds between polymer-water and polymer-methanol. The downward shift of the cloud-point curves (LCST cononsolvency) with the mol fraction of methanol due to the competition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. Aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified PNIPAM carrying short alkyl chains at both chain ends (telechelic PNIPAM) are theoretically and experimentally studied. The LCST of these solutions is found to shift downward along the sol-gel transition curve as a result of end-chain association (association-induced phase separation), and separate from the coil-globule transition line. Associated structures in the solution, such as flower micelles, mesoglobules, and higher fractal assembly, are studied by ultra small-angle neutron scattering with theoretical modeling of the scattering function. Dynamic-mechanical modulus, nonlinear stationary viscosity, and stress build-up in start-up shear flows of the associated networks are studied on the basis of the affine and non-affine transient network theory. The molecular conditions for thickening, strain hardening, and stress overshoot are found in terms of the nonlinear amplitude A of the chain tension and the tension-dissociation coupling constant g. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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