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Rājshāhi, Bangladesh

Helali A.M.,Gonoshasthya Samajvittik Medical College and Hospital | Iti F.M.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | Mohamed I.N.,National University of Malaysia
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2013

Osteoporosis is a pathologic process characterized by low bone mass with skeletal fragility and an increased risk of fracture. It occurs due to an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. Although current antiresorptive therapy halts bone loss, it does not cure the condition as it also inhibits bone formation. Recent preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the inhibition of resorption by cathepsin K inhibitors increases bone formation. Cathepsin K is a papainlike cysteine protease with high potent collagenase activity and predominantly expressed in osteoclasts. While allowing demineralization, cathepsin K inhibitors suppress the degradation of type I collagen (the major organic matrix of bone) and thus enhancing bone formation. Many of these inhibitors have passed preclinical studies and are presently in clinical trials at different stages of advancement. This review explores the promising role of cathepsin K as a novel antiresorptive for the treatment of osteoporosis. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Islam Q.T.,Dhaka Medical College and Hospital | Razzak M.A.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | Islam M.A.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | Bari M.I.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

Poisoning after eating puffer fish containing highly lethal tetrodotoxin (TTX) is widespread in Asia. In 2008, naïve inland populations in Bangladesh were exposed to cheap puffer fish sold on markets. In three outbreaks, 141 patients with history of puffer fish consumption were hospitalized. Symptoms of poisoning included perioral paraesthesia, tingling over the entire body, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain and muscular paralysis of the limbs. Seventeen patients (12%) died from rapidly developing respiratory arrest. Blood and urine samples from 38 patients were analyzed using a TTX-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Medium to high TTX levels were detected (1.7-13.7 ng/ml) in the blood of 27 patients. TTX was below detection level (< 1.6 ng/ml) in 11 blood samples but the toxin was detected in urine. Ten patients had blood levels above 9 ng/ml and developed paralysis; seven of these died. The remaining patients recovered with supportive treatment. High concentrations of TTX and its analogues 4-epiTTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX were also found in cooked puffer fish by post-column liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. To prevent future instances of puffer fish poisoning of this magnitude, measures should be implemented to increase awareness, to control markets and to establish toxicological testing. To improve the management of this and other poisoning in Bangladesh, facilities for life-saving assisted ventilation and related training of healthcare personnel are urgently needed at all levels of the health system. © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Helali A.M.,Gonoshasthya Samajvittik Medical College and Hospital | Iti F.M.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | Ismail S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Haque M.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

Elucidation of obesity susceptibility genes through genome wide approaches as well as candidate gene approaches provides great promise in ultimately determining the genetic underpinnings of obesity. The complex nature of human obesity stems from the multiple interaction of several genes that control the physiology of food intake, energy expenditure, development of the body, and behavioural patterns towards food intake, and the environment. According to twin, adoptees and family studies, genetic factors account for 40-70% of the variability observed in human adiposity. Twin studies supported that the heritability of adiposity is higher than other quantitative traits. The heritability of obesity traits has been further evidenced by identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes through methods such as genome-wide scans (studies conducted on unrelated obese individuals), linkage analyses (conducted in families), and association studies (investigating the correlation between obesity and polymorphisms). The number of contributing genes, however, is still unknown. Although research on the genetic basis of obesity has advanced, the mechanisms underlying the condition are still complex due to its heterogeneity even within families. © 2013 Asadul Mazid Helali et al.


Ekram A.R.M.S.,Monash University | Ekram A.R.M.S.,Rajshahi Medical College and Hospital | Cicuttini F.M.,Monash University | Teichtahl A.J.,Monash University | And 6 more authors.
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2016

Background: Although weight control is important in managing knee osteoarthritis (OA), it is difficult to achieve. Understanding beliefs regarding weight management in people with knee OA may improve weight control. Aims: To examine differences in bodyweight satisfaction, weight management strategies and weight-related health-beliefs in obese, overweight and normal weight people with knee OA. Methods: The beliefs and attitudes to weight in 102 people with symptomatic knee OA were ascertained. Participants were classified as being obese, overweight or of normal weight. Results: Although obese and overweight participants were less satisfied with their bodyweight, they were more likely to want to lose weight and to report dieting compared with normal weight participants(P<0.001 for all) and also more likely to report weight gain in the past 6 months (P <0.001). While most participants rated food intake to be a main determinant of health, this belief was more common in normal weight participants (P=0.04). When asked about their own weight gain, obese participants more frequently believed genetic and metabolic factors to be important than normal and overweight participants (P=0.01). While 51 (53%) believed that increasing activity was more important than dietary change to avoid weight gain, this was more commonly believed by obese and overweight participants (P<0.05). Conclusions: Despite desiring and attempting to lose weight, obese people with symptomatic knee OA more commonly reported weight gain. Overweight and obese participants attributed weight gain to non-modifiable factors but believed physical activity is more important than dietary change in weight management. Thus, education regarding the importance of diet as compared with non-modifiable factors and physical activity may improve weight management in obese people with knee OA. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

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