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Verma B.C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Verma B.C.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Datta S.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rattan R.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Agrochimica | Year: 2014

At flowering stage of rice in 7th year of rice-wheat rotation, an increase in soil moisture had positive impact on Walkley-Black carbon (WBC) content of soil, while KMnO4-oxidizabIe carbon (KMOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were enhanced with increase in duration of drainage. On an average, puddled soil showed 15.2% higher KMOC than non-puddled ones, whereas a reverse trend was observed in case of MBC. With reference to control (without any input), 69 and 103% increases in KMOC were recorded under recommended dose of NPK and 100% organics, respectively; corresponding values for MBC were 48 and 223%. Integrated use of mineral fertilizers with farmyard manure, green manure and crop residues enhanced the KMOC content by 99, 90 and 67% over the control, respectively; corresponding values for MBC were 143, 142 and 180%. Maximum improvement in carbon management index was observed in plots receiving 100% organic source of nutrients. Source

Srivastava S.C.,Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2014

Aswagandha (Withania somnifera dunal) is grown as late kharif crop in all over India particularly in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Being a midseason crop, Aswagandha cultivation is very limited and farmers are hesitating in growing it. The continuous long duration or heavy rains in starting of rainy season caused severe losses to aswagandha crop. This loss can be reduce only by choosing the low rainfall areas or by planting aswagandha after passing the heavy rainfall days of August to September month. The experiment was conducted on growing of aswagandha with two released varieties and four advance genotypes of aswagandha during kharif and rabi season in the year 2008-09 and 2009-10. The observation recorded on plant height (cm), number of branches, root length(cm), root width(cm) and dry root yield (q/ha) in both the season. All the characteristics showed slight decline in magnitude in Rabi season except Number of branches and root length (cm). Though there was a decline in dry root yield (q/ha) at genotypic level in Rabi season but the average dry root yield was 58 q/ha in both the season. The major diseases viz mortality of seedlings and root rot which are common in kharif season was not observed in Rabi season. The weed management and the quality of roots can easily be maintained in rabi season. Study recommended that the growing of aswagandha during rabi season is more suitable as well as more economical (farmers can save Rs 3000- 4000/ha) for cultivation in the state. © 2014, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved. Source

Choudhury B.U.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya | Pradhan S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Lack of information on crop coefficient (kc) values of bed planted rice-wheat system in the Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India has become a constraint for irrigation planning to improve the crop water productivity. In this paper, we estimated kc values from field water balance measured crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and Penman-Monteith estimated reference ET0 for dry-seeded irrigated bed planted rice-wheat rotation and also compared with conventional dry-seeded flat system of planting. The experiment was conducted in 2001-2003 at New Delhi, India. Estimated kc values at initial stage (4-6th weeks of sowing) on raised beds were comparable with flat conventional planting for rice but significantly higher for wheat. However, in later stages of growth, kc values for both rice and wheat were lesser on beds than flat land. The kc values of rice during initial, crop development, mid-season and late-season stages on beds were 0.62, 0.75, 1.16 and 0.67, respectively while in conventional flat land, corresponding kc values were 0.61, 0.97, 1.42 and 0.91, respectively. The kc values for wheat at four crop growth stages (initial, crop development, mid- and late-season) on raised beds were 0.98-1.06, 1.10-1.14, 1.25-1.26 and 0.46-0.47, respectively while on flat land with conventional row (20cm) spacing, corresponding kc values were 0.87, 1.12, 1.45 and 0.55, respectively. Flat beds similar spacing (20-47cm) with raised beds had comparable kc values. Bed geometry led variation in plant population density influenced strongly both crop ETc losses as well as kc values. The results provide estimates of ET0, ETc and kc for use in irrigation scheduling in bed planted rice-wheat system in the IGP of India and elsewhere with similar environmental conditions. © 2013. Source

Satpute S.T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Satpute S.T.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Khanna M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

A field study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 to investigate the yield response of onion (Allium cepa L.) to different irrigation intervals and fertigation strategies under drip irrigation. Two irrigation intervals and four fertigation strategies were evaluated. The plant height, bulb diameter and bulb weight were observed to be highest under the combination of two day irrigation interval with fertigation during second half of irrigation duration (I1F3). The highest yield (34.50 t/ha) was also recorded in the same treatment. The crop water use efficiency (CWUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were highest in the I1F3 treatment. Field data revealed that the I1F3 was found to be the best among all the treatments. Source

Verma B.C.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Datta S.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rattan R.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2013

The present investigation was undertaken in view of the limited information on the relative proportion of labile and stabilized fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) in intensively cultivated lands, particularly under tropics. The specific objectives were i) to study the comparative recovery of SOC by different methods of labile carbon estimation under intensively cultivated lands and ii) to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on carbon management index. For this purpose, in all, 105 surface soil samples were collected from intensively cultiyvated tube well and sewage irrigated agricultural lands. These samples were analysed for total as well as labile pools of SOC. Results indicated that Walkley and Black, KMnO4-oxidizable and microbial biomass carbon constituted the total SOC to the extent of 10.2 to 47.4, 1.66 to 23.2 and 0.30 to 5.49%, respectively with the corresponding mean values of 26.2, 9.16 and 2.15%. Lability of SOC was considerably higher in sewage irrigated soils than tube well irrigated soils under intensive cropping. Under soybean-wheat, the higher values of carbon management index (CMI) (279 and 286) were associated with the treatments where entire amount of nitrogen was supplied through FYM. Similar results were obtained under rice-wheat, whereas in case of maize-wheat the highest value of CMI was recorded under treatment receiving NPK through chemical fertilizer along with green manure. There was also a significant improvement in CMI under integrated (chemical fertilizer + organics) and chemical fertilizer-treated plots. The values of CMI ranged from 220 to 272 under cultivated lands receiving irrigation through sewage and industrial effluents. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India). Source

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