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Shrivastava N.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Khan Z.M.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2017

It is well known that fossil fuels are depleting day by day, and with the increase in the number of vehicles the pollution has reached at an alarming stage. The need of the hour is to find an alternate fuel as well as to demote the exhaust emission and enhance the performance parameters of the internal combustion (I.C.) engine. Researches on I.C. engines are being conducted in order to come to a feasible solution. Since performing experiments on an I.C. engine is both time consuming and costly therefore many soft computing techniques are being adopted in this field. The term soft computing refers to find the solution of an inexact problem. Different soft computing techniques being used in this field are Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Based Approach, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System, Gene Expression Programming, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization. The motive of this work is to review the researches being carried out in the field of I.C. engine on different types of engines with various alternative fuels using these soft computing techniques. © 2017 CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain

Arya L.D.,Shri Gs Institute Of Technology And Science | Choube S.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

This paper describes a technique for selection of buses in a sub transmission system for location of distributed generation (DG) and determination of their optimum capacities by minimizing transmission losses. The buses have been selected based on incremental voltage (dV/dP) sensitivities. Line flow constraints have been accounted. Type-3 DG i.e. wind turbine along with induction generator has been considered for the study. Differential evolution (DE) has been used to evaluate the optimum DG capacity and results have been compared with those obtained using bare bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO) and multi-membered non-recombinative (μ + λ) evolution strategy (MMNRES). The developed algorithms have been implemented on standard 6-bus and 30-bus test systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jayaswal P.,Madhav Institute of Technology and Science | Verma S.N.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Wadhwani A.K.,Madhav Institute of Technology and Science
JVC/Journal of Vibration and Control | Year: 2011

The objective of this work is to develop techniques to automate the condition-based maintenance procedure. It is observed that vibration signals are capable of alarming the malfunctions in machineries. In order to overcome the shortcomings in the traditional vibration analysis using time-domain and frequency-domain features, two new approaches based on wavelet transform, artificial neural network and fuzzy rules are proposed for detecting and localizing defects in rolling element bearings. The two expert systems are developed and tested with the use of vibration signals collected from the bearing housing of an experimental setup. Experiment results show that the proposed approaches are sensitive and reliable in detecting defects on the outer race, inner race and rolling elements of bearings. The proposed approaches may be used for other fault diagnoses such as gear faults, coupling faults, belts in industries. It is also expected from the obtained results that the generalized defect detection will be easier in future by using the proposed approaches via other parameters such as noise, temperature, lubricant analysis in addition to used vibration signals. © The Author(s) 2010.

Shukla R.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

This study describes the application of response surface methodology in the optimization of guar gum microspheres for colon-specific delivery of metronidazole. The effect of varying the relative percent of the four factors used, that is guar gum, glutaraldehyde, swelling time, and stirring speed, has been systematically investigated for identifying their best values to optimize the drug release and encapsulation efficiency as well as to highlight possible interactions among the components. Different batches were prepared according to 24 factorial designs and randomly evaluated for drug release and drug encapsulation efficiency. Analysis of response surface plots allowed identification of the best combination of four levels to minimize drug release in upper part of gastrointestinal tract and maximize the encapsulation efficiency. The scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the surface of these microspheres. Drug polymer interactions were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry and XRD. The good correspondence between calculated and experimental values indicated in the validity of the generated statistical model. Only a small fraction of drug was released at acidic pH; however, the release of drug was found to be higher in the presence of rat cecal contents, indicating the susceptibility of crosslinked guar gum matrix to colonic enzymes released from rat cecal contents. Metronidazole release kinetics corresponds best to zero-order model and drug release mechanism was diffusion and swelling controlled. The significance of differences was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sahu J.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Sahu J.N.,University of Malaya | Acharya J.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Meikap B.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Meikap B.C.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Tamarind wood an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with zinc chloride. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective means for reducing organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals and unpleasant tastes and odours in effluent or colored substances from gas or liquid streams. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, chemical ratio of zinc chloride to Tamarind wood and activation time on the chemical activation process of Tamarind wood. Two quadratic models were developed for yield of activated carbon and adsorption of malachite green oxalate using Design-Expert software. The models were used to calculate the optimum operating conditions for production of activated carbon providing a compromise between yield and adsorption of the process. The yield (45.26 wt.%) and adsorption (99.9%) of the activated carbon produced at these operating conditions showed an excellent agreement with the amounts predicted by the models. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Thapar V.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Agnihotri G.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Sethi V.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

Accurate modelling is crucial in designing an optimum system. Wind speed distribution of selected site, hub height and power output curve of chosen wind turbine, are the main factors which influence the performance of wind turbines, and therefore, these must be properly accounted for during modelling of the wind turbines.This paper presents comparative study of various methods for mathematical modelling of wind turbines, with reference to three commercially available wind turbins, with the help of an algorithm developed.It has been found that modelling methods, based on fundamental equations of power available in the wind, are cumbersome to use and do not correctly replicate the behaviour of actual wind turbines.Models based on a presumed shape of power curve, though simple to use, also lack the desired accuracy; however, they give satisfactory response for higher annual average wind speeds.Modelling methods in which actual power curve of a wind turbine is used for developing characteristic equations, by utilising curve fitting techniques of method of least squares and cubic spline interpolation, give accurate results for wind turbines having smooth power curve; whereas, for turbines having not so smooth power curve, model based on method of least squares is best suited. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kumar S.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Chaube A.,P.A. College | Jain S.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Flora G.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Gupta D.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Tiwari A.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

Chronic lead exposure is associated with several health disorders in humans and animals. Lead exposure leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletes body antioxidant enzymes causing damage to various macromolecules and ultimately cell death. Curcumin has been widely recognized to protect against metal toxicity but has major limitations of reduced bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation of curcumin could be an effective strategy to combat lead induced toxic manifestations. The present study investigates the protective efficacy of bulk and nanocurcumin against lead-induced toxicity. Swiss albino mice were daily exposed to lead acetate (25 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and after 1 h treated either with curcumin (15 mg/kg, orally) or nanocurcumin (15 mg/kg, orally) for two consecutive weeks. The preventive efficacy of nanocurcumin was evaluated against various altered biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress and lead accumulation in blood and soft tissues. Coadministration of nanocurcumin with lead restored the altered δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, glutathione (reduced and oxidized) levels, and also decreased reactive oxygen species, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. Nanocurcumin due to its possible chelating property and enhanced bioavailability efficiently removed lead from blood and soft tissues compared to bulk curcumin. Results demonstrate the enhanced preventive efficacy of nanocurcumin and suggest an interesting and novel approach for better treatment of lead toxicity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Flora G.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Gupta D.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University | Tiwari A.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Interdisciplinary Toxicology | Year: 2012

Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Though various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. Modulation of cellular thiols for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been used as a therapeutic strategy against lead poisoning. N-acetylcysteine, a-lipoic acid, vitamin E, quercetin and a few herbal extracts show prophylaxis against the majority of lead mediated injury in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review provides a comprehensive account of recent updates describing health effects of lead exposure, relevant biomarkers and mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. It also updates the readers about recent advances in chelation therapy and newer therapeutic strategies, like nanoencapsulation, to treat lead induced toxic manifestations. Copyright © 2012 SETOX & IEPT, SASc.

Thapar V.,Rajiv Gandhi Technical University
Solar Energy | Year: 2015

Objective of this study is to analyse the impact of main factors, viz., load being supplied, wind speed, global irradiance, ambient temperature and battery bank capacity (BBC), on the performance of Hybrid Energy System (HES). Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE) and Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) have been considered as performance indicators. Energy balance approach is used for calculating BBC and corresponding LCE at desired LPSP for the selected system configuration and inputs.It is concluded that for a given load, with increase in BBC, the LCE increases linearly, whereas LPSP decreases exponentially. With increasing load, the BBC required for supplying power at a given LPSP, and corresponding LCE initially increase gradually and then sharply and linearly. With increase in wind speed, BBC and corresponding LCE initially decrease sharply and then gradually; this variation is more prominent for higher loads. The BBC and corresponding LCE decrease with increase in global irradiance, the decrease is gradual for low loads; whereas, for large loads the decrease is initially sharp and then gradual. The BBC required for supplying power to a given load at a given LPSP, and corresponding LCE, increase almost linearly with increase in annual average of hourly ambient temperature. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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