Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research

Puducherry, India

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research

Puducherry, India
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

PubMed | Pondicherry University, National Institute of Immunology, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health science, Annamalai University and Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research
Type: | Journal: Neurotoxicology | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress and inflammation are some of the contributing factors for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinsons disease (PD). Though Valeriana wallichii D.C. is known for its nervine activities its effect against PD is yet to be studied. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of V. wallichii rhizome extract (VWE) in MPTP induced PD mice. GC-MS analysis of VWE indicated the presence of phytoconstituents like isovaleric acid and acacetin. PD induced mice were treated orally with three different doses (50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight (BW)) of VWE for 14 days and their behavioural changes were studied on days 0, 8, 13 and 21. The levels of striatal dopamine, mid brain tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) cell count, TH protein expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidants and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. Mid brain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Also mid brain histopathological analysis was performed. VWE treatment significantly recuperated the altered behavioural test scores, striatal dopamine levels, mid brain TH(+) cell count and TH protein levels, increased GFAP expression and the histopathological changes observed in PD mice. Similarly, diminished levels of antioxidants, elevated levels of ROS, LPO and inflammatory cytokines were also significantly ameliorated following VWE treatment. The effective dose of VWE was found to be 200mg/kg BW. Conclusively, V. wallichii rhizome extract has the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in PD.


Kemgang T.S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kemgang T.S.,University of Ngaoundéré | Kapila S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shanmugam V.P.,National Dairy Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is a multicompartmental system, each strain has its way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarizes the interplay existing between the host immune system and probiotic lactobacilli, that is, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect towards pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Reddi S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shanmugam V.P.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Kapila S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kapila R.,National Dairy Research Institute
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2016

Osteoblast cells are the building blocks of bone architecture and most suitable cells for screening osteoanabolic agents. As bone formation begins with osteoblast proliferation, it is the essential stage for screening osteoanbolics. LC–MS/MS analysis of the 11th RP–HPLC fraction of pepsin–trypsin (PT) hydrolysates of buffalo casein showed 15 peptides. Out of these 15 peptides, four peptides of less than 1 kDa were custom-synthesized and evaluated for osteoblast proliferating ability. Proliferation effect of the peptides was studied by formazan crystal formation (MTT method) and relative expression of proliferation marker genes (clay and cdk2). PT hydrolysates and all the four peptides significantly induced osteoblast proliferation indicated by both MTT and relative gene expression studies. This study showed the osteoblast-promoting property of peptides derived from milk proteins, thereby further substantiating the earlier epidemiological data regarding bone health-promoting effect of milk. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Shanmugam V.P.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shanmugam V.P.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Kapila S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Sonfack T.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kapila R.,National Dairy Research Institute
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2015

Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions and may ultimately influence health. We scrutinised the antioxidative property of peptides from buffalo casein digested with pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin alone and in combinations. Casein hydrolysates were subjected to ultrafiltration followed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The antioxidant properties of casein, its hydrolysates and synthetic peptides, was assessed using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). The fraction with highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was selected for further study. TEAC of casein was 0.862±0.11μmolmg-1, while it is highest for pepsin-trypsin hydrolysates. The 1kDa permeate of pepsin-trypsin hydrolysates possessed the highest antioxidant activity and it was resolved into 16 fractions by RP-HPLC. Antioxidant activity fraction 11 was highest and on custom sequencing yielded 4 peptides, of which the synthetic peptide VLPVPQK possessed the highest TEAC (5.71±0.59μmolmg-1). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mukhopadhyay H.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Matta S.L.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Amsaveni S.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Antony P.X.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

A total of 85 samples (58.0%) were found to be positive for Canine parvovirus (CPV) by PCR assay (Hfor/Hrev primers) out of 158 suspected faecal samples of dogs collected from various states/union territories of India. Nine CPV isolates could be obtained in A-72 cell line. The sequencing of the partial VP2 gene of CPV identified the predominant CPV strain as CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) with one CPV-2b (Ser297Ala) and another CPV-2a variant strain (Ser297Gly). Several non-synonymous and synonymous mutations were also recorded in this study. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most of the CPV sequences from Tamil Nadu (Southern India) and Maharashtra (Western India) obtained during 2011 and few sequences from Northern India obtained during 2012 were grouped together along with CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) strains from China and India and followed the same evolution; although there was definitive indication of separate lineages too by few other sequences. © Springer Science+Business Media 2013.


Udgaonkar U.S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Patil S.S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University | Rekha V.B.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research | Shah S.,Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Diagnosis of Bacille calmette-guerine (BCG) adenitis is clinical. Conventional laboratory tests do not differentiate BCG adenitis from tuberculous adenitis. We report a case of a 3-month-old healthy baby presenting with suppurative BCG adenitis. FNAC revealed AFB on ZN-Staining, later confirmed to be Mycobacterium bovis by multiplex PCR. The treatment of suppurative BCG adenitis is needle aspiration. Anti-tubercular treatment is unwarranted.


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virus genes | Year: 2014

A total of 85 samples (58.0 %) were found to be positive for Canine parvovirus (CPV) by PCR assay (Hfor/Hrev primers) out of 158 suspected faecal samples of dogs collected from various states/union territories of India. Nine CPV isolates could be obtained in A-72 cell line. The sequencing of the partial VP2 gene of CPV identified the predominant CPV strain as CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) with one CPV-2b (Ser297Ala) and another CPV-2a variant strain (Ser297Gly). Several non-synonymous and synonymous mutations were also recorded in this study. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most of the CPV sequences from Tamil Nadu (Southern India) and Maharashtra (Western India) obtained during 2011 and few sequences from Northern India obtained during 2012 were grouped together along with CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) strains from China and India and followed the same evolution; although there was definitive indication of separate lineages too by few other sequences.


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research
Type: | Journal: Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica | Year: 2016

The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious and serious enteric disease of dogs with high fatality rate. The present study was taken up to characterize the full-length viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of CPV of Indian origin along with the commercially available vaccines. The faecal samples from parvovirus suspected dogs were collected from various states of India for screening by PCR assay and 66.29% of samples were found positive. Six CPV-2a, three CPV-2b, and one CPV-2c types were identified by sequence analysis. Several unique and existing mutations have been noticed in CPV types analyzed indicating emergence of newer variants of CPV in India. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the field CPV types were grouped in different subclades within two main clades, but away from the commercial vaccine strains. CPV-2b and CPV-2c types with unique mutations were found to be establishing in India apart from the prevailing CPV-2a type. Mutations and the positive selection of the mutants were found to be the major mechanism of emergence and evolution of parvovirus. Therefore, the incorporation of local strain in the vaccine formulation may be considered for effective control of CPV infections in India.


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of feline medicine and surgery | Year: 2016

The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India.The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene.Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 samples (11.3%) of 106 faecal samples tested. Two new CPV-2a (297Ala and Asn426) and three FPV strains were identified by VP2 gene analysis. Several unique and existing amino acid mutations were found suggesting continuous evolution and emergence of newer variants. The phylogenetic analysis of the CPV sequences revealed that the two new CPV-2a strains from Mumbai (MC8) and Puducherry (P15) were clustered together in a single clade but had evolved independently and were ancestrally related to Chinese CPV-2a isolates. The FPV sequences (T-C-6 and T-C-1) from Thrissur, Kerala, formed a different clade (FPV clade) and were closely related to each other and had an ancestral relationship with an FPV isolate from the USA. Another FPV isolate from Goa (GC1) was positioned in the same clade but had evolved independently.Detection of CPV in both diarrhoeic/healthy cats and the occurrence of FPV infection in a vaccinated cat provide new insights into parvovirus infections in cats in India.


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region.A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases. The data collected were analyzed by chi-square test using software Graph pad prism, and results were used to assess the relationship between education level and zoonotic disease awareness; risk of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables.The present survey analysis represents that most of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 41-60 years. About 42.8% of respondents household having a graduate. The most of the respondent are small-scale farmers and their monthly income was less than Rs. 10,000. About 61.2% of farmers were keeping their animal shed clean. About 29.6% of the respondents were ignorant about cleaning the dog bitten wound. Only 16.4% of respondents knew that diseases in animals can be transmitted to humans. Only 4.8%, 3.6%, 6.8%, and 22.4% of respondents knew about the zoonotic potential of diseases such as brucellosis, tuberculosis (TB), anthrax, and avian flu, respectively. Only 18% of the respondents were aware about zoonotic diseases from cattle. Regarding the list of zoonotic diseases contracted, 37.7% reported respiratory infection, 31.1% digestive disturbances, 15.5% had dermatological problem, and 15.5% reported indiscrete disease such as fever, body pain, and headache joint pain. From the respondent got the zoonotic disease (n=45), 51.2% of the respondent reported chronic infection and 48.8% of the respondent reported acute form of zoonotic infection. About 30% of the respondents farm had an incidence of abortion. Our analyses showed that there was significant in educational level of respondents and treatment of dog bitten animals. Furthermore, there was statistical significance in occurrence of hand and foot lesions in the respondent and occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in their animals.From this study, it is concluded that involvement of educated family members in farming practices can create awareness and improve knowledge toward zoonotic disease. Further creation of awareness toward zoonotic diseases is of utmost important.

Loading Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research collaborators
Loading Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research collaborators