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Vollala V.R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Upadhya S.,St. George's University | Nayak S.,Manipal University India
Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology | Year: 2011

Objective: Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been used in treatment for a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. The current study examined the effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology in adult rats of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar (2.5-month-old) rats were designated into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n=8 for each dose). These rats along with age-matched control rats were then subjected to spatial learning (T-maze) and passive avoidance tests. Subsequent to the T-maze and passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation, brains were removed and hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida. Dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with control rats. Results and Conclusions: The results showed improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with BM extract. There was a significant increase in the dendritic intersections and dendritic branching points along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in rats treated with BM extract for four and six weeks. However, the rats treated with BM extract for two weeks did not show any significant change in hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic arborization. We conclude that constituents present in BM extract have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties.


Alekhya P.,P.A. College | Sriharsha M.,P.A. College | Venkata Ramudu R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science RIMS | Shivanandh B.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science RIMS | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Medication compliance is a well-established issue in the care of depression. There is evidence that more than 50% of depressed patients withdraw treatment prematurely. Some factors reported to have an important effect on adherence are: poor socioeconomic status, poverty, illiteracy, low level of education, unemployment, lack of effective social support networks, unstable living conditions, long distance from treatment centre, high cost of transport, high cost of medication, changing environmental situations, culture and lay beliefs about illness and treatment and family dysfunction. To study the socio demographic factors that influence compliance to the treatment of depression. The present Cross sectional study was carried out in the department of General Medicine (IP) of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Kadapa, AP, A total of 103 subjects were participated in the study during 6 months) & the patients were enrolled to the study according to the inclusion & exclusion criteria, after obtaining Informed Consent Form (ICF). Among the 103 psychiatric patients 31 patients were adherent and 72 patients were non adherent. In our study non-adherence was more unmarried, higher level of education occupy a lower socioeconomic strata and have a history of non-adherence. Our study revealed significant effect was observed only in level of education, and overall various barriers had less significant on non-adherence. Clinical pharmacist’s role still remains in psychiatry department for the improvement of patient medication adherence by creating awareness regarding disease and treatment and providing patient counselling services. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.


Kamalakar M.V.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study is to examine the electrocardiographic features of patient stung by scorpions. Thirty six patients stung by scorpions were gathered in the study. 12 lead derivations electrocardiography (ECGs) was performed to all patients. The determined parameters were: PR segment and QRS duration, QTmin, QTmax, QTc, QT dispersion (QTd) intervals, minimum P wave duration (PWmin), maximum P wave duration (PWmax) and P wave dispersion (PWd). Thirty six patients (17 males and 19 females, mean age: 35.7±13.7 years) were included in this analysis. Heart rate (84,5±13,8 beat/min), QRS (98,8±11,8 msn), QTc (412±27,4 msn), QTd (412±27,4 msn), PWmin (412±27,4msn) and PWd (41,4±19,7 msn) were found. Scorpion sting lead electrocardiographic variability. The most common changes were ST changes, sinus tachycardia, atrial ectopic beat, bradycardia, and ventricular ectopic beat. © 2015, Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.


Bashir M.S.M.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Khade A.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Bhagat S.,Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Irfanuddin M.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Gender differences in the pattern of organophosphorus poisoning in a tribal distict of andhra Pradesh Msm bashir, a khade,s bhagat, m irfanuddin Objectives Retrospective study for gender differences in the pattern of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in Adilabad, a tribal district of Andhra Pradesh was carried out to know the present status. Materials and methods Data was collected from the records of OP poisoning patients admitted in RIMS Adilabad, a government medical college, for the period of 1st May 2005 to 30th April 2010. Gender differences were seen for death, hospital stay, time of consumption and age. Results 70% males and 30% females were involved with peak cases during 2009-10. Death rate was 16 to 20% in male with majority of cases during monsoon season while in female it was less than 15% without seasonal variations. Mean hospital stay was almost similar in both genders. Time of consumption was evening and night hours in male and afternoon in female. Male from 3rd decade onwards and female in their 2nd and 3rd decade were commonly involved. Conclusion Better policies to reduce the impact of monsoon failure and overall development of female are needed.


Sadanandam S.S.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Gangam R.R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

The determination of sex from an adult human skeleton is a fundamental task for forensic and physical anthropologists. Sex determination from skeletal remains may be done through morphologic (non-metric) or metric analyses. The talus has been shown to be useful for human identification as it is often well preserved during excavations and easily distinguished even in a fragmentary state due to its unique morphology. The aim of the present study is determination of sex from the talus of Indian population using morphometrical analysis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to study talus for various morphological features such as length, width, height, neck length and neck breadth of the talus. In this study five variables of right and left talus were taken with the intention to show the differences in variable measurements of both sides and determine the sex. We have tried to determine the sex of the talus (162), taking into consideration the variable measurements of the 21 (seven females and 14 males) tali where the sex of the bone was known. The mean for all the variables of the tali studied viz., length, width, height, its neck length and breadth of the male right and left tali are more than those of the female right and left tali on either side. For the determination of the sex the literature available was not adequate, hence, we have compared tali of known sex and evaluated the results with the bones of unknown sex and tried to establish the sex of the bone. As per the variables in most cases (length, width, height, neck length, neck breadth) the sex of the bone identification was up to 75-92%.


Vollala V.R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Upadhya S.,St. George's University | Nayak S.,Manipal University India
Clinics | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 21/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose). After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze) and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM) for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks). CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growthstimulating properties. © 2011 CLINICS.


Kamalakar M.V.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2015

Suicide by organophosphorus poisoning is common in India. Acute poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds is a major clinical problem, with thousands of deaths occurring every year in India. Eighty five (n=85) patients with organophosphorus poisoning were admitted to the emergency ward in a tertiary care medical college and hospital in Andhra, India. History of ingestion, clinical signs & symptoms and survival time in case of death were recorded to diagnose the OP poisoning. 54.11 % of OP patients were aged between 16-30 years, followed by 31-45 years (31.76%). Based on different OP pesticides, Methyl Parathion showed highest consumption (61.17%) among patients. Majority of the admitted cases were of suicidal and women were the main sufferer. Suicidal deaths due to ingestion of organophosphorus compound are very common in India especially in women. The reason may be the increasing stress in the family and economic constraints. © 2015, World Informations Syndicate. All rights reserved.


Vollala V.R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS
Anatomical science international | Year: 2011

Bacopa monniera (BM)--a small, creeping herb-has been classified under Medhya rasayana (medicinal plants rejuvenating intellect and memory) in the ancient Indian system of medicine, viz., Ayurveda. Therefore, this plant has been investigated in several laboratories in India for its neuropharmacological effects. Here, we investigated the role of BM standardized extract on the dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons-one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The rat pups (10 days old) were fed standardized extract of BM (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed and amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida. Dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with all doses of BM for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents present in BM extract have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties.


Lakmala V.,Gandhi Medical College | Gangam R.R.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Nagaraju P.,RMO
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

The hard palate is an essential part of human skull. It forms the roof of the mouth and floor of nasal cavities. The detailed knowledge of hard palate plays an important role in the passive articulation of speech. The present study was conducted on 30 skulls of which 17 were male cases and 13 female cases collected from the department of Anatomy, Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad, Telangana state, India. The measurements of palatine length, breadth and height were recorded. Palatine index and palatine height index were calculated using standard formulae. Mean palatine length in male and female cases were 54.18 and 48.0mm respectively. Mean palatine breadth was 34.0 and 32.54mm and height 15.76 and 13.15mm respectively. Mean palatal length showed a highly significant difference between male and female cases. Palatal breadth and height showed no significant difference between both sexes. However, the average values of palatine length, breadth and height in male cases were higher compared to female cases. Palatal Index and Palatal Height Index showed no significant differences between both genders.


Khade J.A.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science RIMS | Phadnaik M.,Government Dental College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2013

Background: Gingival recession, sometimes called root exposure, is a rather common clinical finding in adults. During recent years, a growing concern about an increase in gingival recession has been expressed by a number of dental clinicians all over the world.Studies on the incidence, prevalence, etiology and treatment of gingival recession have been published by various authors from different countries. However, representative information about the occurrence and risk factors of gingival recession in Indian population is limited. Objective: To determine prevalence, extent, severity and associated etiological factors of gingival recession in a sample of dental patients. Materials and Method: 511 subjects of either sex, aged 15 years and above were selected randomly and examined. Demographic data, dental complaints, deleterious oral habits, oral hygiene habits and detailed intraoral examination was done. Prevalence of gingival recession, its correlation to demographic data and etiological factors were examined. Results: The prevalence of gingival recession in the present study was 89.04%.Prevalence increased with increasing age. Tooth powders, tobacco and ash as dentifrice, deleterious habits like smokeless tobacco, pan and/or betelnut chewing, frenum pull, poor oral hygiene and periodontitis contributed significantly in increasing the prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: A high prevalence of gingival recession exists in dental patients in India. Etiology of gingival recession appears to be multifactorial.

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