Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture

Bhubaneshwar, India

Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture

Bhubaneshwar, India

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Remany M.C.,Sathyabama University | Remany M.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Kirubagaran R.,Marine Biotechnology National Institute of Ocean technology | Kumar J.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white legged shrimp), is an exotic shrimp species introduced to India in 2009, and is currently been extensively cultured along the Southeast coastal region of the Country. The expansion of the industry had resulted in mushrooming up of unapproved hatcheries and farms which do not implement adequate biosecurity measures or good management practices required for farming this exotic shrimp species. This resulted in frequent disease outbreaks which in turn resulted in crop loss to the industry. The present study highlights the investigation on the prevalence of economically significant DNA and RNA viral pathogens [(White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Infectious Hypodermal Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV), Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) and Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV)] in P. vannamei cultured in approved and unapproved farming systems along the two major coastal regions (Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) of Southeast India. Overall prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV pathogens was higher (p < 005) in unapproved farms than the approved ones. However prevalence was not found to be statistically different between the two coasts. Data on prevalence of these pathogens in the farming systems would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management and thus serve to formulate mitigation measures to control the disease incidences in P. vannamei farming systems of the Country.


Rimmer M.A.,Fajar University | Thampisamraj Y.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Jayagopal P.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Thineshsanthar D.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

The broodstock of two grouper species, tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus, were maintained in sea cages near Rutland Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, and their spawning performance was monitored from June 2007 to December 2010. E. fuscoguttatus generally spawned monthly in association with the new moon phase, for 8-9. months each year. Each year, they underwent a 3- to 4-month refractory period between February and June then recommenced spawning in May-July. P. areolatus showed a different spawning pattern to E. fuscoguttatus, spawning for less than 6. months each year, also in association with the new moon, and demonstrating much longer refractory periods (up to 15. months) than E. fuscoguttatus. Analysis of temperature data from the sea cage site showed that water temperature was significantly lower during spawning events than during comparable non-spawning periods. We postulate that one factor inhibiting spawning is higher water temperatures exceeding the upper thermal inhibitory limit for both grouper species during the hotter months of the year. Selected broodstock fish of both species were also maintained in onshore tanks fitted with recirculating filtration systems, but the spawning performance of both grouper species in the onshore tanks was inferior to broodstock held in the sea cages. E. fuscoguttatus maintained in onshore tanks spawned during only 5. months of the 42-month study period, whereas E. fuscoguttatus held in the sea cages spawned during 29. months over the same time frame. P. areolatus held in onshore tanks over the same period did not spawn, whereas P. areolatus held in sea cages spawned during 16. months out of the 42-month study period. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mandal A.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Rao D.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Karuppaiah D.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Gopalakrishnan A.,Cochin Unit | And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F ST (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R ST (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Aflalo E.D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Raju D.V.S.N.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Bommi N.A.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Verghese J.T.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Sex reversal technology, realized through androgenic gland (AG) manipulation, was recently introduced as a process for production of all-male producing broodstock. This technology exploits however, a relatively small number of sex-reversed broodstock. Thus, both genetic improvement via a breeding program and prevention of inbreeding are needed to ensure the sustainability of such technology. Three wild strains of prawns originating from geographically (though not necessarily genetically) isolated locations in India [Gujarat (G), Kerala (K) and West Bengal (WB)] were assessed for their suitability as breeders for all-male production. In addition, their potential for a selective breeding program was evaluated. A comparative evaluation of early sex segregation, sex reversal, growth performance, and population structure in the three selected strains was performed. Among the purebred strains, after eight months of grow out in earthen ponds, growth performance of the WB strain was the best (59.39 ± 1.08. g), while that of G was the poorest (26.50 ± 0.94. g). Strain-additive genetic effects for body weight at harvest were highest for the WB strain (+ 45.9%) and lowest for the G strain (- 28.3%). Body masses of WB × K and WB × G crosses were 14.2% and 8.8% above the mean mass of the purebred strains, respectively, while that of the K × G cross was 23% below this value. In most crosses, males reached heavier mean body weights than did females with higher frequencies of the large male morphotypes being seen in the WB purebred strain and its respective crosses. Reciprocal effects for body mass ranged from 4% to 14.9% below the mean of the purebred strains. These negative signs mean that in the two crosses involving the WB strain, growth performance is higher when this stain was used as the sire strain. Similarly, the growth performance of the K × G cross was higher when the former was used as the sire strain. Average heterosis effect for body weight was minor (- 0.51 ± 0.73) and did not differ significantly from zero. The high correlation between strain additive effects (the major source of variation in growth) and total performance for body weight (r= 0.927) indicate the existence of valuable genetic variation that could be exploited in a selective breeding program. For all-male production, males from the three strains were segregated at early post-larval stages and microsurgical AG removal was performed. In all the strains, similar low levels of complete sex reversal into functional neo-females (genetic males) were realized (0.17% - 0.34%). These produced relatively small numbers of neo-female to be crossed with normal males to produce the desired all-male population, but raise the possibility that such a process could result in a genetic bottleneck. Thus, a genetic improvement scheme for each strain integrated with periodical crosses of the resulting neo-females from one strain with males from another strain is suggested to avoid inbreeding. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Aflalo E.D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Dandu R.V.S.N.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Verghese J.T.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Rao N.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Culturing all-male giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) presents a promising avenue for increasing yield and income. A sex reversal technology through androgenic gland (AG) manipulation was introduced, posing an increased risk of inbreeding. Thus, a scheme for Kerala (K) and West Bengal (WB) strains crossing using neo-females from one strain with males from the other strain was suggested.Microsurgical sex reversal was applied in juvenile males of the Kerala strain at developmental stages of PL15, PL30, PL45 and PL60. Improved success rates of feminization were achieved when the intervention was performed at early developmental stages. Prawns operated at the PL15 and PL30 stages began developing ovaries as early as 105days after metamorphosis and were able to produce offspring. A grow-out experiment in earthen ponds of all-male progeny originating from Kerala neo-female×West Bengal males was performed and the effect of selective harvest (SH) of <50g prawns was compared to a final harvest (FH) strategy. The survival rate in the SH group was significantly higher than that in the FH group. Specific growth rate was significantly lower in the FH than in the SH group, while the feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in the SH than in the FH group. Distribution of fast-growing orange clawed (OC) males in the SH group was substantially narrower, peaking at 55-60g, while in the FH group OC males were distributed over the size range of 30-150g, suggesting further growth potential. Moreover, the terminally molted Blue Clawed (BC) males presented only small portion of the males; 7% and 0.7% in the FH and SH groups, respectively. The frequency of the large male (>100g) marketable size group was significantly higher, and that of the medium-sized (5075g) group was lower in the FH treatment in comparison with the SH.The cross tested herein demonstrated substantially higher yield than that obtained in previous studies, however, no statistically significant difference in net productions was found between the FH and SH treatments (2207±130 versus 2163±137kgha-1, respectively). Cost-benefit analysis after nine months of grow-out showed higher profit and higher benefit-cost ratio in the FH group. However, the SH treatment resulted in more uniform marketable prawns and suggested a continuous cash flow throughout the grow-out period. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Remany M.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Daly C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Nagaraj S.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Panda A.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2012

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Remany M.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Cyriac D.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Krishnakanth Varada Raju P.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Sruthi Prem O.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

In shrimp farming, screening for economically significant viral pathogens in nucleic acids of shrimps is vital for disease surveillance programmes and further, to take necessary precautions to ensure the sustainability of the farms and thereby the shrimp industry. Different preservatives, temperature and storage durations of the pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei broodstock were tested to investigate its effect on the quality and quantity of the nucleic acids. The pleopods were subjected to two preservation regimes and the yield and stability of the extracted nucleic acids were monitored over a time period of 12 months. Stability of the nucleic acids was assessed with nested polymerase chain reaction, and the yield was checked spectrophotometrically. Data was analysed by performing two way ANOVA and Tukeys Paired test. Preservation treatments included storage at −20°C and 5°C in RNAlater™ and in 70 % ethanol. Significant variation (P <0.05) was observed in both DNA and RNA yield and stability from ethanol and RNAlaterTM stored pleopods at 5°C. However, the yield and stability did not differ (P >0.05) in both the preservatives at −20°C. The RNA was degraded and yielded lesser quantity when pleopod tissues were stored in ethanol at −20°C than when stored in RNAlaterTM during storage duration of 9 months. This study would help the shrimp farmers and researchers to adopt better preservation strategy, vital for shrimp disease surveillance programmes and for traceability studies in the event of any disease outbreak. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication. All rights reserved.


Mandal A.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Varkey M.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Mani A.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Sobhanan S.P.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture | Thampi-Samraj Y.C.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2014

Identification of commonly available Indian mud crabs of the genus Scylla was carried out using RAPD and PCR-RFLP to resolve the taxonomic ambiguity of the genus. Samples were collected from western, eastern, and Andaman coastal waters of India. A total of 16 potential species-specific RAPD markers were identified from 179 individuals using 4 arbitrary primers (OPA2, OPA14, UBC122, and UBC456). Three PCR-RFLP markers were developed that could be used to confirm taxonomic status of Indian mud crab species. The species-specific RAPD markers and the digestion pattern of PCR-RFLP analysis indicate conclusively that only 2 species of mud crabs (Scylla serrata and Scylla olivacea) are commonly present in Indian coastal waters.


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gene | Year: 2011

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement).


PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2012

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P>005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India.

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