Rama Rao S.V.,Rajendranagar |
Raju M.V.L.N.,Rajendranagar |
Panda A.K.,Rajendranagar |
Poonam N.S.,Rajendranagar |
And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011
The effect of supplementing five graded concentrations (0.64, 0.67, 0.70, 0.73 and 0.76 units of dietary lysine) of threonine (Thr) in low crude protein diets (LCPD) containing 25g less crude protein (CP) kg-1 compared to the levels in control diet (CD) on performance, carcass traits, retention of nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), and immune responses (lymphocyte proliferation ratio - LPR, antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine) in broilers were investigated. Three CDs containing 220g, 200g and 180g CP; 13.3, 11.4 and 10.4g lysine (Lys) kg-1 were fed during pre-starter, starter and finisher phases, respectively. Ross 308 broiler female chicks were distributed to 6 treatments with 10 replications of 6 chicks in each. Experimental diets in mash form were fed ad libitum from day 1 to 42d of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were reduced (P<0.01) in broilers fed LCPD at 14d of age. At 28 and 42d of age, the performance of broilers fed LCPD with 0.64 Thr was similar to those fed the CD. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were not (P>0.05) influenced by Thr supplementation to LCPD. The carcass variables, retention of Ca and P, lymphoid organ (bursa, spleen, thymus) weights and immune responses were not affected (P>0.05) by either reduction in CP or supplementation of Thr to LCPD. Retention of N was significantly (P<0.01) higher in LCPDs compared to those fed the CD, while Thr supplementation to the LCPD did not influence (P>0.05) the N retention. The results suggested that broiler female chicks require more than 195g CP kg-1 diet during pre-starter phase. The CP can be reduced by 25gkg-1 in starter and finisher diets (175 and 155gkg-1, respectively) without affecting the broiler performance, carcass yields and immune responses by maintaining 7.6, 6.4 and 5.7g Thr kg-1 diet, respectively during pre-starter, starter and finisher phases. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Rawat N.,Rajendranagar |
Naga N.C.,Rajendranagar |
Meenakshi S.R.,Rajendranagar |
Nair S.,International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology |
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2012
The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US 80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Realtime polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated.We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction, however, modulated a large number of differentially expressed transcripts to reprogram cell organization, cell remodeling, and relocation of nutrients through transport to support insect growth. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Mallikarjuna Swamy B.P.,Rajendranagar |
Mallikarjuna Swamy B.P.,International Rice Research Institute |
Kaladhar K.,Rajendranagar |
Ramesha M.S.,Rajendranagar |
And 3 more authors.
Rice Science | Year: 2011
Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45%) of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection. © 2011 China National Rice Research Institute.
Ram T.,Rajendranagar |
Laha G.S.,Rajendranagar |
Deen R.,Rajendranagar |
Ramos J.M.,International Rice Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011
Six hundred and sixty-two accessions of Oryza rufipogon were screened against two Philippine strains (PXO61 and PXO99) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) for their resistance to bacterial blight (BB). Of the 662 accessions, 13.6% were resistant and 7.9% were moderately resistant to PXO61 strain, while 5.7% and 6.8% accessions were found resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, against strain PXO99. The accessions found resistant to one or both the strains were further evaluated with five Philippine isolates and four Indian isolates having different virulence profile. Fourteen accessions were highly resistant to all the five strains of the Philippines, while six accessions were found to have broad-spectrum resistance to all the four Indian strains of Xoo. Of the 662 accessions screened, only two accessions designated as Acc# 104423 and 80671 were found resistant to all the Philippines and Indian strains making them highly valuable donors for durable broad- spectrum resistance to BB. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rajalekshmi M.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. |
Sugumar C.,Kemin Animal Nutrition and Health |
Chirakkal H.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. |
Poultry Science | Year: 2014
The study investigated the effect of supplementation of chromium propionate at different dosage levels (100 to 3,200 μg/kg of elemental chromium in feed) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of broiler birds. The study was conducted on male broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for a period of 42 d as per the completely randomized design. Seven hundred 1-d-old birds were randomly segregated into 7 treatment groups, each with 10 replicates, and each replicate having 10 birds. Weight gain, feed intake, carcass characteristics, immune response, and the serum biochemical parameters of birds were studied during the supplementation period. There was no significant response to chromium supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, FCR, and lymphoid organ weights for the overall study period of 42 d. With increased chromium dosage, the breast meat yield improved linearly (P = 0.045). Antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination improved quadratically (P = 0.001) with increased dose of chromium in the diet. Improved cell-mediated immune response was indicated by the increase (quadratic, P = 0.00) in lymphocyte proliferation ratio with increased dose of chromium supplementation. Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio decreased (quadratic, P = 0.004) with chromium propionate dosage, suggestive of reduced stress levels. Chromium propionate supplementation also reduced serum glucose levels (quadratic, P = 0.008) and improved (quadratic, P = 0.016) the total protein levels. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Girish P.S.,National Research Center on Meat |
Haunshi S.,Rajendranagar |
Vaithiyanathan S.,National Research Center on Meat |
Rajitha R.,National Research Center on Meat |
Ramakrishna C.,National Research Center on Meat
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013
Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat is a major item of export from India but export of beef i.e. meat from cattle (Bos indicus) is prohibited. Also, adulteration of buffalo meat with that of beef (meat from cattle) is a common fraudulent practice because of prohibition on cow slaughter in most states of India. Food analysts require precise identification techniques to implement such regulations. In the present study, a method of DNA extraction by Alkaline lysis from meat samples and speciation of buffalo meat using species specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been reported. Alkaline lysis technique is a rapid method which involves triturating meat with four volumes of 0.2N NaOH, dilution of resultant liquid extract with eight volumes of 0.2N NaOH, heating the mix 75 °C for 20 min followed by neutralization with eight volumes of 0.04N Tris HCl. Entire procedure of DNA extraction takes less than 30 min and it is economical as it involves less expensive chemicals. Method was successfully applied in animal byproducts also viz., liver, heart and kidney. For authentication of buffalo meat, pair of primers was designed based on mitochondrial D loop gene nucleotide sequence. PCR amplification using the designed primers gave amplicon of size 482 bp in buffalo and no amplification was detected in closely related species viz., cattle, sheep and goat meat samples. Results of the assay were highly repetitive and reliable. An export sample referred by export regulation authorities was also analyzed by using the Alkaline lysis method of DNA extraction and species specific PCR which enabled authentication of meat within 5 h. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).
Lal C.,P. B. 5 |
Hariprasanna K.,Rajendranagar |
Chikani B.M.,P. B. 5 |
Gor H.K.,P. B. 5
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014
Genetic models presume the absence of inter-allelic interactions (epistasis), while estimating components of genetic variation, may lead to biased estimates. Genetic control of physical quality traits in peanut and role of epistasis was studied following a triple test cross mating design. The experimental materials consisting of 27 progenies produced by crossing nine inbred lines belonging to both Spanish and Virginia botanical groups with three testers (TAG 24, TMV 2 NLM, and their F1) were evaluated in a replicated randomized complete block design. The data on parents, F1s and three-way crosses were collected for 10 physical-quality traits of pods and kernels following standard procedures, and analysed to detect epistasis. Inter-allelic interactions were detected for shelling outturn, 100-pod weight, count, 100-seed weight, sound mature seeds, pod length, seed diameter and ratio of seed length to seed diameter using F or t statistics. For pod diameter and seed length, epistasis could not be detected by both the tests, and in the expression of these two traits additive gene action was very important. Partitioning of total epistasis to its component parts indicated presence of both additive × additive (i) type and additive × dominance (j) + dominance × dominance (l) type inter-allelic interactions for 100-seed weight with the preponderance of the former indicating that it can be effectively exploited. Inheritance of 100-pod weight was controlled by i type of inter-allelic interactions, shelling outturn was controlled by j+l type. The findings suggest that improvement in physical-quality traits, especially pod and seed size can be achieved through conventional breeding, but it would be necessary to delay the selection process until maximum frequency of homozygous loci is achieved to exploit i type epistasis.
Badri J.,Rajendranagar |
Yepuri V.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University |
Ghanta A.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University |
Siva S.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University |
Siddiq E.A.,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2014
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop with high-quality seed oil and many antioxidant properties. Owing to its commercial and medicinal values, there is a renewed interest among agricultural scientists in this ancient crop. Efforts to strengthen the sesame-specific marker base have been initiated in the recent past; however, the available number of microsatellite markers is still not sufficient for the development of high-resolution genetic linkage maps for important agronomic traits and there is a need to increase the number of informative DNA markers in sesame. In the present study, we developed 25 microsatellite markers by employing the selective hybridization strategy and 95 mining expressed sequence tags of the NCBI database. This new set of microsatellite markers was characterized and screened for genetic diversity in an array of 16 sesame germplasms. Of the 120 SSRs, 92 were polymorphic, consisting of 18 SSRs from selective hybridization and 74 from the EST data set. The number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from 2 to 5, with an average of 3.11 alleles. The allele size ranged widely (100-510 bp) among the primer pairs. Polymorphic information content estimates ranged from 0.2982 to 0.912. Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.21 to 0.82. The potential of the markers was assessed by diversity analysis using the sequential hierarchical agglomerative nonoverlapping clustering technique of the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means on a set of 16 genotypes of sesame, including 2 wild species. Results supported the hypothesis that S. malabaricum could be the immediate progenitor of the cultivar species and that S. mulayanum is distinct from S. malabaricum and S. indicum, while suggesting hardly any diversity among the cultivars. © TÜBİTAK.
Rama Rao S.V.,Rajendranagar |
Raju M.V.L.N.,Rajendranagar |
Panda A.K.,Rajendranagar |
Poonam N.S.,Rajendranagar |
Shyam Sunder G.,Rajendranagar
British Poultry Science | Year: 2011
1. An investigation was carried out into the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-T) concentration and source of supplemental oil on performance, activity of anti-oxidative enzymes and some immune responses in broilers from day-old to 41 d of age. 2. Three dietary concentrations of α-T (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) with three sources of supplemental oil (sunflower - SFO, palm -PMO and safflower - SAO) were provided using a 3×3 experimental design. 3. Body weight gain and food conversion efficiency were not affected by either interaction or concentrations of α-T and sources of oil in diet. 4. Concentrations of total protein, globulin, triglycerides and cholesterol in sera increased significantly with dietary α-T concentration irrespective of the source of oil. Significantly higher concentration of serum albumin was evident in broilers fed on the SFO-based diet and the concentration of globulin was higher in groups fed on those diets containing PMO and SAO. 5. The lipid peroxidation (LP), measured as MDA release, decreased with the concentration of α-T in a dose-related manner with SFO- and SAO-based diets, although not with the PMO-based diet. With different oil sources, LP was significantly lower with the PMO-based diet compared to the others. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and RBC catalase increased and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio was reduced with concentration of α-T for each source of oil tested. 6. Assays for humoral and cell-mediated immune responses indicated no effect of the source of dietary supplemental oil or interaction, although an increasing concentration of dietary α-T improved cellmediated immune responses. 7. It is concluded that sunflower oil, palm oil and safflower oil can be used as sources of oil for broiler diets without having any effect on performance, immune responses or the activity of anti-oxidizing enzymes. Higher concentrations of dietary α-tocopherol (50 or 100 mg/kg) reduced lipid peroxidation activity and enhanced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, they also improved the cell-mediated immune responses in commercial broilers. © 2011 British Poultry Science Ltd.
Patil J.V.,Mahatma Phule Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya |
Rakshit S.,Rajendranagar |
Khot K.B.,Mahatma Phule Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2013
Post-rainy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is mostly cultivated under receding soil moisture leading to postflowering moisture stress. Gene effects governing six moisture stress tolerance attributing traits were studied in nine generations of a cross between drought susceptible parent, SPV 1587 and drought tolerant parent, Phule Maulee under natural receding soil moisture regime during winter season of 2006-07 under randomized block design with three replications. Phule Maulee recorded higher relative leaf water content, chlorophyll stability index and grain yield per plant. Stomata frequencies were less on both surfaces in the drought tolerant parent. Heterosis and preponderance of duplicate epistasis (particularly dominance × dominance) were recorded for all the traits. This suggested the potential for hybrid breeding for drought tolerance in sorghum. Transgressive segregants were recorded for all the traits. Presence of significant dominance x dominance epistatic interactions suggests that selection for drought tolerance should be avoided in early generations and practiced in the advanced generations.