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Mihintale, Sri Lanka

Rajarata University of Sri Lanka is a university located in the historic city of Mihintale, near Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It was established on 31 January 1996. Wikipedia.

Ranadheera C.S.,University of Newcastle | Ranadheera C.S.,Rajarata University | Evans C.A.,University of Newcastle | Adams M.C.,University of Newcastle | Baines S.K.,University of Newcastle
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Effect of carrier food type on in vitro gastrointestinal survival and adhesion ability of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 were evaluated using goat's milk ice cream, plain and fruit yogurts. Carrier food matrix had a significant influence on the in vitro gastrointestinal tolerance of all three probiotics when exposed to both highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0) and 0.3% bile. Exposure to conditions of lower pH (pH 2.0) resulted in a significant reduction in probiotic viability during simulated gastric transit tolerance compared to pH levels of 3.0 and 4.0. However, ice cream was generally found to improve the acid and bile tolerance of the probiotics compared to plain and stirred fruit yogurts. In a similar manner, the in vitro adhesion ability of probiotics was found to be influenced by the carrier food matrix, with fruit yogurt providing the most favorable outcomes, although in all cases a substantial number of viable bacteria (105-106cfu/g) were able to attach to the Caco-2 cells. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jayasumana C.,Rajarata University | Jayasumana C.,California State University, Long Beach | Gunatilake S.,California State University, Long Beach | Senanayake P.,Hela Suwaya Organization
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Weerakoon K.G.A.D.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Weerakoon K.G.A.D.,University of Queensland | Weerakoon K.G.A.D.,Rajarata University | Gobert G.N.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2015

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease that afflicts more than 240 million people, including many children and young adults, in the tropics and subtropics. The disease is characterized by chronic infections with significant residual morbidity and is of considerable public health importance, with substantial socioeconomic impacts on impoverished communities. Morbidity reduction and eventual elimination through integrated intervention measures are the focuses of current schistosomiasis control programs. Precise diagnosis of schistosome infections, in both mammalian and snail intermediate hosts, will play a pivotal role in achieving these goals. Nevertheless, despite extensive efforts over several decades, the search for sensitive and specific diagnostics for schistosomiasis is ongoing. Here we review the area, paying attention to earlier approaches but emphasizing recent developments in the search for new diagnostics for schistosomiasis with practical applications in the research laboratory, the clinic, and the field. Careful and rigorous validation of these assays and their costeffectiveness will be needed, however, prior to their adoption in support of policy decisions for national public health programs aimed at the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Prasanna P.H.P.,University of Reading | Prasanna P.H.P.,Rajarata University | Grandison A.S.,University of Reading | Charalampopoulos D.,University of Reading
Food Research International | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to find out the best growing conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, which improve their functionality in yoghurt-like products. Two Bifidobacterium strains were used in this study, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205. In the first part of the study the effect of casein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, added at 1.5% w/v in skim milk, was evaluated in terms of cell growth and EPS production; skim milk supplemented with yeast extract served as the control. Among the various nitrogen sources, casein hydrolysate (CH) showed the highest cell growth and EPS production for both strains after 18h incubation and therefore it was selected for subsequent work. Based on fermentation experiments using different levels of CH (from 0.5 to 2.5% w/v) it was deduced that 1.5% (w/v) CH resulted in the highest EPS production, yielding 102 and 285mgL -1 for B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486, respectively. The influence of temperature on growth and EPS production of both strains was further evaluated at 25, 30, 37 and 42°C for up to 48h in milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) CH. The temperature had a significant effect on growth, acidification and EPS production. The maximum growth and EPS production were recorded at 37°C for both strains, whereas no EPS production was observed at 25°C. Lower EPS production for both strains were observed at 42°C, which is the common temperature used in yoghurt manufacturing compared to that at 37°C. The results showed that the culture conditions have a clear effect on the growth, acidification and EPS production, and more specifically, that skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) CH could be used as a substrate for the growth of EPS-producing bifidobacteria, at 37°C for 24h, resulting in the production of a low fat yoghurt-like product with improved functionality. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

To determine the prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Anuradhapura district and evaluate present screening methods for anaemia. Modified WHO 30 cluster sampling method with increased precision was used to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Serum haemoglobin was measured using methemoglobin method. Clinical examination was carried out to evaluate the conjunctival method in anaemia screening. Values recorded from haemoglobin colour scale method used in the field antenatal clinics were collected. A total of 990 pregnant women participated in the study. In the first, second and third trimesters, prevalence of anaemia was 7.6%, 19.7% and 19.3% respectively. Gestational age adjusted anaemia prevalence among pregnant women in this study population was 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16.4%). Mean and median haemoglobin concentration of the study sample was 11.8g/dL (SD 1.02g/dl and IQR 11.2-12.5g/dl). Among anaemic pregnant women, average values for Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were, 82.9 fl (SD 11.5), 27.6 (SD-3.6) pg/cell and 32.9g/dl (SD 1.8) respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of haemoglobin colour scale method was 50% (95% CI 29.0-71.0%) and 76.3% (95% CI 66.9-83.7%) respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of conjunctival method in detecting anaemia during pregnancy was 18.8% (95% CI 11.9-28.4) and 69.3% (95% CI 58.2- 78.6%). Prevalence of anaemia in the district of Anuradhapura was less than 50% of the estimated prevalence for Sri Lanka. Both haemoglobin colour scale and conjunctival method were having low validity in detecting anaemia in pregnancy.

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