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Leelawatwattana L.,Prince of Songkla University | Praphanphoj V.,Rajanukul Institute | Prapunpoj P.,Prince of Songkla University
FEBS Journal | Year: 2011

During vertebrate evolution, the N-terminal region of transthyretin (TTR) subunit has undergone a change in both length and hydropathy. This was previously shown to change the binding affinity for thyroid hormones (THs). However, it was not known whether this change affects other functions of TTR. In the present study, the effect of these changes on the binding of TTR to retinol-binding protein (RBP) was determined. Two wild-type TTRs from human and Crocodylus porosus, and three chimeric TTRs, including a human chimeric TTR in which its N-terminal sequence was changed to that of C. porosus TTR (croc/huTTR) and two C. porosus chimeric TTRs (hu/crocTTR in which its N-terminal sequence was changed to that of human TTR and xeno/crocTTR in which its N-terminal sequence was changed to that of Xenopus laevis TTR), were analyzed for their binding to human RBP by native-PAGE followed by immunoblotting and a chemilluminescence assay. The Kd of human TTR was 30.41 ± 2.03 μm, and was similar to that reported for the second binding site, whereas that of crocodile TTR was 2.19 ± 0.24 μm. The binding affinities increased in croc/huTTR (Kd = 23.57 ± 3.54 μm) and xeno/crocTTR (Kd = 0.61 ± 0.16 μm) in which their N-termini were longer and more hydrophobic, but decreased in hu/crocTTR (Kd = 5.03 ± 0.68 μm) in which its N-terminal region was shorter and less hydrophobic. These results suggest an influence of the N-terminal primary structure of TTR on its function as a co-carrier for retinol with RBP. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS. Source


Ausavarat S.,Chulalongkorn University | Ausavarat S.,Red Cross | Tongkobpetch S.,Chulalongkorn University | Tongkobpetch S.,Red Cross | And 10 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: The presence of mammary glands distinguishes mammals from other organisms. Despite significant advances in defining the signaling pathways responsible for mammary gland development in mice, our understanding of human mammary gland development remains rudimentary. Here, we identified a woman with bilateral amastia, ectodermal dysplasia and unilateral renal agenesis. She was found to have a chromosomal balanced translocation, 46,XX,t(1;20)(p34.1;q13.13). In addition to characterization of her clinical and cytogenetic features, we successfully identified the interrupted gene and studied its consequences.Methods: Characterization of the breakpoints was performed by molecular cytogenetic techniques. The interrupted gene was further analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Mutation analysis and high-density SNP array were carried out in order to find a pathogenic mutation. Allele segregations were obtained by haplotype analysis.Results: We enabled to identify its breakpoint on chromosome 1 interrupting the protein tyrosine receptor type F gene (PTPRF). While the patient's mother and sisters also harbored the translocated chromosome, their non-translocated chromosomes 1 were different from that of the patient. Although a definite pathogenic mutation on the paternal allele could not be identified, PTPRF's RNA and protein of the patient were significantly less than those of her unaffected family members.Conclusions: Although ptprf has been shown to involve in murine mammary gland development, no evidence has incorporated PTPRF in human organ development. We, for the first time, demonstrated the possible association of PTPRF with syndromic amastia, making it a prime candidate to investigate for its spatial and temporal roles in human breast development. © 2011 Ausavarat et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Wangkumhang P.,National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology BioTeC | Wangkumhang P.,Chulalongkorn University | James Shaw P.,National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology BioTeC | Chaichoompu K.,National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology BioTeC | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

There is considerable ethno-linguistic and genetic variation among human populations in Asia, although tracing the origins of this diversity is complicated by migration events. Thailand is at the center of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), a region within Asia that has not been extensively studied. Genetic substructure may exist in the Thai population, since waves of migration from southern China throughout its recent history may have contributed to substantial gene flow. Autosomal SNP data were collated for 438,503 markers from 992 Thai individuals. Using the available self-reported regional origin, four Thai subpopulations genetically distinct from each other and from other Asian populations were resolved by Neighbor-Joining analysis using a 41,569 marker subset. Using an independent Principal Components-based unsupervised clustering approach, four major MSEA subpopulations were resolved in which regional bias was apparent. A major ancestry component was common to these MSEA subpopulations and distinguishes them from other Asian subpopulations. On the other hand, these MSEA subpopulations were admixed with other ancestries, in particular one shared with Chinese. Subpopulation clustering using only Thai individuals and the complete marker set resolved four subpopulations, which are distributed differently across Thailand. A Sino-Thai subpopulation was concentrated in the Central region of Thailand, although this constituted a minority in an otherwise diverse region. Among the most highly differentiated markers which distinguish the Thai subpopulations, several map to regions known to affect phenotypic traits such as skin pigmentation and susceptibility to common diseases. The subpopulation patterns elucidated have important implications for evolutionary and medical genetics. The subpopulation structure within Thailand may reflect the contributions of different migrants throughout the history of MSEA. The information will also be important for genetic association studies to account for population-structure confounding effects. © 2013 Wangkumhang et al. Source


Cupp P.K.,University of Kentucky | Atwood K.A.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | Byrnes H.F.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | Miller B.A.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Health Communication | Year: 2013

This article reports on a combined family-based substance abuse and HIV-prevention intervention targeting families with 13-14-year-old children in Bangkok, Thailand. Families (n = 340) were randomly and proportionally selected from 7 districts in Bangkok with half randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Families in the intervention condition were exposed to 5 interactive booklets about adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior. Trained health educators followed up by phone to encourage completion of each booklet. Primary outcomes reported in this article include whether the intervention increased the frequency of parent-child communication in general or about sexual risk taking in particular as well as whether the intervention reduced discomfort discussing sexual issues. The authors also tested to see whether booklet completion was associated with communication outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Multivariate findings indicate that the intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of general parent-child communication on the basis of child reports. The intervention had a marginal impact on the frequency of parent-child communication about sexual issues on the basis of parent reports. Booklet completion was associated with reduced discomfort discussing sex and was marginally associated with frequency of parent-child discussion of sex on the basis of parent reports only. These findings indicate that a family-based program can influence communication patterns. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rhucharoenpornpanich O.,Mahidol University | Chamratrithirong A.,Mahidol University | Fongkaew W.,Chiang Mai University | Miller B.A.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Health Communication | Year: 2012

This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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