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Arockiaraj J.,SRM University | Mariappan P.,Rajah Serfoji Government College Autonomous | Learnal Sudhakar G.R.,Pachaiyappas College for Men | Balasundaram C.,Tamil University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

The effect of astaxanthin at 0, 25, 50, and 100mgkg-1 incorporated in basal feed on immune response and disease resistance in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. When fed with 25mgkg-1 diet, the cumulative mortality was 35% whereas it was 10% and 20% with 50 and 100mgkg-1 diets. With all enriched diets the growth rate increased significantly from week 1 to 4 when compared with control. However, the specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not vary significantly from that of the control except with 50mgkg-1 diet. When fed with 50 and 100mgkg-1 diets the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values significantly increased. However, the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin contents significantly increased only when fed with 50 and 100mgkg-1 diets. The phagocytic ratio also significantly raised with 50 and 100mgkg-1 diets on week 2 and 4 whereas the phagocytic index significantly increased with all groups only on fourth week. The respiratory burst activity significantly increased in 25mgkg-1 diet group on first week whereas in 50 and 100mgkg-1 diet groups the activity increased on weeks 2 and 4; a similar trend was observed in the anti-protease activity only on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity and bactericidal activity registered a significant increase with all enriched diets. This study suggests that supplementation of astaxanthin at 50 and 100mgkg-1 with the basal diet significantly promotes the growth restores hematology and modulates the immune system in C.carpio against A.hydrophila. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ilangeswaran D.,Rajah Serfoji Government College Autonomous | Manisankar P.,Alagappa University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

A new electroactive and electrochromic copolymer of 4-aminodiphenylamine (ADPA) and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DADPS) was synthesized electrochemically in 0.5 M H2SO4 in water and ethanol medium. The electrochemical synthesis of the copolymer by deposition on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and its characterization were carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The voltammograms exhibited different patterns of behavior with different feed concentrations of DADPS. Equimolar concentrations of ADPA and DADPS or the combination with slight excess concentration of DADPS demonstrated very efficient growth of the copolymer film on the surface of the GCE. The copolymer is highly soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The scan rate of this copolymer on GCE showed linear variation, revealing the film's excellent electroactive adherent properties. The effect of pH on the copolymer film showed that the polymer was electrochemically active up to pH 7.0. Spectroelectrochemical analysis of the copolymer film, carried out on an indium tin oxide (ITO) plate, showed multi-color electrochromic behavior when the applied potential was changed. The copolymer was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral data. The surface morphology was studied using SEM analysis and the grain size of the copolymer was measured using XRD studies and found to be 28 nm. The electrical conductivity of the copolymer was 3.48 × 10-2 S cm-1, as determined using a four-probe conductivity meter. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ravichandran K.,AVVM Sri Pushpam College Autonomous | Rajkumar P.V.,AVVM Sri Pushpam College Autonomous | Sakthivel B.,AVVM Sri Pushpam College Autonomous | Swaminathan K.,RKM Vivekananda College Autonomous | Chinnappa L.,Rajah Serfoji Government College Autonomous
Ceramics International | Year: 2014

ZnO thin films were deposited using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from three different precursors viz. zinc acetate, zinc sulfate and zinc chloride. All the films were annealed in air and vacuum ambiences at 350 °C and characterized for their structural, optical, photoluminescence, electrical and surface morphological properties. The XRD profiles show that the crystalline quality of the films is improved after annealing in both the environments. It is found that the preferential orientation changes from (002) plane to (100) plane after atmospheric annealing for the films prepared from zinc acetate and zinc sulfate precursors, whereas no transition in preferential orientation is observed for films deposited from zinc chloride. Vacuum annealing does not affect the preferential orientation of all the three sets of films, but the intensities of diffraction peaks are increased remarkably. The films fabricated from zinc acetate and zinc sulfate precursors exhibit good average optical transmittance of 80% in the visible region after annealing whereas that deposited from zinc chloride exhibits only 70% transmittance. Compared with as-deposited and air annealed films, the vacuum annealed films exhibit lower electrical resistivity. An increase in the optical band gap and improvement in the surface morphology are also observed after annealing under both the ambiences for all the films, irrespective of the precursor used. The photoluminescence studies support the results on crystalline quality and optical band gap. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

Vidhyasagar T.,Annamalai University | Rajeswari K.,Annamalai University | Shanthi D.,Annamalai University | Kayalvizhi M.,Kunthavai Naachiar Government Arts College W Autonomous | And 3 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2015

The title compound, C22H17NO4, crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. Each molecule exists as an E isomer with C - C=C - C torsion angles of - 175.69 (17) and - 178.41 (17)° in A and B, respectively. In molecule A, the planes of the terminal benzene rings are twisted by an angle of 26.67 (10)°, while the biphenyl unit is non-planar, the dihedral angle between the rings being 30.81 (10)°. The dihedral angle between the nitrophenyl ring and the inner phenyl ring is 6.50 (9)°. The corresponding values in molecule B are 60.61 (9), 31.07 (8) and 31.05 (9)°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged in a head-to-head manner, with the 3-nitrophenyl groups nearly parallel to one another. The A and B molecules are linked to one another via C - H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains lying parallel to (3¯20) and enclosing R22(10) and R22(12) ring motifs. The methoxy group in both molecules is positionally disordered with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.979 (4):0.021 (4) for molecule A and 0.55 (4):0.45 (4) for molecule B.

Thirumurugan R.,Bharathidasan University | Arockiaraj J.,SRM University | Mariappan P.,Rajah Serfoji Government College Autonomous | Balasundaram C.,Tamil University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

The effect of diet enriched with 1% chitin or chitosan on innate immune response and disease resistance in Cirrhina mrigala against Aphanomyces invadans was investigated at weeks 1, 2, and 4. In the un-infected and infected groups the white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haematocrit (Ht), lympocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils significantly increased when fed with 1% chitin (CH) or chitosan (CT) enriched diet from weeks 1 to 4 when compared to control; however, the haemoglobin (Hb) and thrombocytes significantly increased only on weeks 2 and 4. The total protein and albumin levels also significantly increased with any enriched diet on weeks 2 and 4; but the globulin and albumin:globulin ratio increased on week 4 as compared to control; similarly the phagocytic activity significantly increased on weeks 2 and 4 while the lysozyme activity increased from weeks 1 to 4. The complement activity was significantly enhanced in CT and CTI fed groups on weeks 2 and 4. In un-infected fish fed with 1% CH and CT diets, the cumulative mortality was 10% and 5% whereas the infected fish suffered 20% and 25% mortality. The present results suggest that infected fish fed with 1% chitin or chitosan enriched diet modulates the immune system conferring disease resistance in C.mrigala against A.invadans. © 2014.

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