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Siddavaram N.,Annamalai University | Ramamurthi V.P.,Annamalai University | Veeran V.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Mishra R.,Central University of Jharkhand
Cellular Oncology | Year: 2012

Background Chlorophyllin, a water soluble semi-synthetic food-grade derivative is reported to exhibit a wide range of beneficial health effects. We investigated the effect of chlorophyllin supplementation on Wnt/β-catenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model. Methods and results Hamsters were divided into 4 groups. The right buccal pouches of group 1 and 2 hamsters were painted with 0.5 % DMBA for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals received in addition chlorophyllin (4 mg/kg bw) in the diet. Group 3 animals received chlorophyllin alone and group 4 animals served as control. mRNA and protein expression of components of Wnt, VEGF, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dietary chlorophyllin administration suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by altering the expression of several components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This was associated with inhibition of angiogenesis as evidenced by decreased expression of the proangiogenic factors HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2. Chlorophyllin administration also downregulated the expression of histone deacetylases involved in epigenetic regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Conclusion Dietary chlorophyllin that abrogates Wnt/β-catenin and VEGF signaling by targeting a multitude of key signaling molecules is an attractive candidate for preventing tumor progression. © International Society for Cellular Oncology 2012.

Chitturi R.T.,Sibar Institute of Dental science | Nirmal R.M.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Sunil P.M.,Sree Anjaneya Institute of Dental science | Devy A.S.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Reddy B.V.R.,Sibar Institute of Dental science
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2014

Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) with a malignancy rate of 0.2-2%. Aneuploidy is considered to be one of the important markers for malignant transformation and DNA-image cytometry (DIC) has been successfully employed in oral mucosal PMDs and also in tumors of the cervix, lung and biliary tract. Aims: In this study, we intend to assess the ploidy status of exfoliated cells in OLP using DIC. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cells from 48 patients with different subtypes of OLP (reticular, plaque type, erosive and atrophic) and 10 controls were stained using Feulgen reaction and assessed for integrated optical density using image analysis software and the ploidy status was assessed. Results: All the patients in the control group and most of the patients (93.5%) who had reticular or plaque type of OLP (29 out of 31) exhibited diploid nuclei in the smears, whereas 11 patients who had erosive or atrophic types of OLP showed aneuploid nuclei. Conclusions: The patients with erosive or atrophic types of OLP are at more risk and assessment of ploidy status by exfoliative cytology can be used as an adjuvant for diagnosis.

Teja C.S.,SIBAR Institute of Dental science andhra Pradesh | Devy A.S.,SIBAR Institute of Dental science andhra Pradesh | Nirmal R.M.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Sunil P.M.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Deepasree M.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science
CytoJournal | Year: 2014

Background: Tumors are distinguished from normal tissues partly by their pronounced variability of cellular and nuclear dimensions. Therefore, such factors may be an indicator to assess whether the cells are malignant or not. Exfoliative cytology is a reliable tool in assessing such changes in the uterine cervix and has been used in the oral cavity also with success. The aims and objectives of the following study were to evaluate the malignant changes by assessing the quantitative parameters such as cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter and cytoplasmic area (CD, CP, CA) and nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter and nuclear area (ND, NP, NA) and cytoplasmic to nuclear ratio in the exfoliated cells of various subtypes of oral lichen planus (OLP) using cytomorphometry. Materials and Methods: Oral exfoliated cells from nineteen cases of histologically proven OLP (1 atrophic, 13 reticular, 4 erosive and 1 plaque) and ten controls with healthy mucosa were taken and stained by Feulgen-Rossenback reaction and cytomorphometric analysis was performed using an image analysis software. The parameters taken into account were CD, CP, CA and ND, NP, NA. Furthermore CA/NA was calculated. The parameters were statistically analyzed using the t-test. Results: Cytomorphometric analysis of all the parameters showed no significant difference between the control group and the reticular/plaque subtypes, whereas statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences was obtained between the control group and the atrophic/erosive subtypes group when compared using t-test. Conclusions: The cytomorphometric analysis of OLP shows that erosive/atrophic subtypes of OLP are at more risk and exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometry can be used as a tool to assess the malignant changes. © 2014 Poflee, et al.; licensee Cytopathology Foundation Inc.

Konchada J.,Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute | Karthigeyan S.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Asharaf Ali S.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Venkateshwaran R.,Sree Balaji Dental College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Statement of problem: Disinfection of prostheses with chemical solutions has deleterious effects on dentures. The appropriate power setting of microwave for disinfection, without affecting denture base properties, is a controversy. Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of simulated microwave disinfection at a recommended power setting on the mechanical properties of three denture base heat polymerized acrylic resins. Material and Methods: Ninety rectangular specimens of each acrylic resin of 65mm × 10mm × 3 mm dimensions were divided into three groups. Group A (Trevalon), Group B (Trevalon- HI), Group C (Ivocap). In each group, thirty specimens were divided into three subgroups with ten specimens in each and they were submitted to MicroVickers hardness, flexural strength, and impact strength tests. In each subgroup, five specimens were tested before the simulated microwave disinfection and they served as the control group. The remaining five were tested after simulated microwave disinfection and they were considered as the experimental group. Simulated microwave disinfection was done in a domestic microwave oven at 650 W for 5 minutes. Results: The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and t-test. The mechanical properties of the three denture base resins were not altered after simulated microwave disinfection, as compared to those of the controls. Conclusion: Microwave irradiation at 650 W for 5 min did not affect the mechanical properties of the three denture base resins. Domestic microwave oven, at the prescribed setting, can be used as an alternative method of disinfection for complete dentures without affecting their properties.

Varghese S.S.,Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital | Sunil P.M.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Madhavan R.N.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital
Cancer Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Aims: Prolonged production of the free radical, nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays an important role in tumour progression by promoting angiogenesis, invasion and inducing mutation in tumour suppressor gene. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the expression and intensity of iNOS in normal oral mucosa, precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and methods: An immunohistochemical study was performed using rabbit monoclonal antibody to iNOS on archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues of 5 normal oral mucosal samples, 10 Leukoplakia, 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 15 OSCC of different grades. Results: A statistical significant difference was found between normal oral mucosa, precancer and OSCC in expression of iNOS (p value 0.0015). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the expressions of iNOS within premalignant groups (p value 0.5647) and histological sub-groups of OSCC (p value-0.5647). There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of iNOS expression within the precancer group, OSCC sub-groups and between precancer and OSCC (p value-0.623). Conclusion: The orderly increase in the expression of iNOS from normal, through precancer, to OSCC suggests the essential role played by iNOS in epithelial transformation and tumour formation. © 2010/2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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