Raja Nl Khan Womens College

Medinīpur, India

Raja Nl Khan Womens College

Medinīpur, India
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Changdar C.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Mahapatra G.S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Kumar Pal R.,University of Calcutta
Swarm and Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2014

In this paper, we have presented a multi-objective solid travelling salesman problem (TSP) in a fuzzy environment. The attraction of the solid TSP is that a traveller visits all the cities in his tour using multiple conveyance facilities. Here we consider cost and time as two objectives of the solid TSP. The objective of the study is to find a complete tour such that both the total cost and the time are minimized. We consider travelling costs and times for one city to another using different conveyances are different and fuzzy in nature. Since cost and time are considered as fuzzy in nature, so the total cost and the time for a particular tour are also fuzzy in nature. To find out Pareto-optimal solution of fuzzy objectives we use fuzzy possibility and necessity measure approach. A multi-objective genetic algorithm with cyclic crossover, two-point mutation, and refining operation is used to solve the TSP problem. In this paper a multi-objective genetic algorithm has been modified by introducing the refining operator. Finally, experimental results are given to illustrate the proposed approach; experimental results obtained are also highly encouraging. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. © 2013ElsevierB.V. Allrightsreserved.


Changdar C.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Mahapatra G.S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Pal R.K.,University of Calcutta
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

In this paper, we have proposed an improved genetic algorithm (GA) to solve constrained knapsack problem in fuzzy environment. Some of the objects among all the objects are associated with a discount. If at least a predetermined quantity of the object(s) (those are associated with a discount) is selected, then an amount (in $) is considered as discount. The aim of the model is to maximize the total profit of the loaded/selected objects with obtaining minimum discount price (predetermined). For the imprecise model, profit and weight (for each of the objects) have been considered as fuzzy number. This problem has been solved using two types of fuzzy systems, one is credibility measure and another is graded mean integration approach. We have presented an improved GA to solve the problem. The genetic algorithm has been improved by introducing 'refining' and 'repairing' operations. Computational experiments with different randomly generated data sets are given in experiment section. Some sensitivity analysis have also been made and presented in experiment section. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Changdar C.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Pal R.K.,University of Calcutta | Mahapatra G.S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli
Soft Computing | Year: 2016

In this paper, a genetic-ant colony optimization algorithm has been presented to solve a solid multiple Travelling Salesmen Problem (mTSP) in fuzzy rough environment. In solid mTSP, a set of nodes (locations/cities) are given, and each of the cities must be visited exactly once by the salesmen such that all of them start and finish at a depot using different conveyance facility. A solid mTSP is an extension of mTSP where the travellers use different conveyance facilities for travelling from one city to another. To solve an mTSP, a hybrid algorithm has been developed based on the concept of two algorithms, namely genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) based algorithm. Each salesman selects his/her route using ACO and the routes of different salesmen (to construct a complete solution) are controlled by the GA. Here, a set of simple ACO characteristics have further been modified by incorporating a special feature namely ‘refinement’. In this paper, we have utilized cyclic crossover and two-point’s mutation in the proposed algorithm to solve the problem. The travelling cost is considered as imprecise in nature (fuzzy-rough) and is reduced to its approximate crisp using fuzzy-rough expectation. Computational results with different data sets are presented and some sensitivity analysis has also been made. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Das D.C.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Sinha N.K.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Chattopadhyay J.C.,Medical College | Das M.,Vidyasagar Institute of Health | Samanta P.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2013

Gonorrhoea and Syphilis as Sexually Transmitted Infections occur throughout the world. In India the prevalence of these diseases are in alarming situation due to the rapid spread of the diseases, high cost of treatment and the increased risk of transmission. Current therapies available for symptomatic treatment are quite expensive beyond the reach of common people and associated with the emergence of drug resistance. Many patients seeking help from the alternative systems of medicines for treatment. In our country several crude plants are used as medicine since Vedic period. Herbal medicines provide rational means for the treatment of many Sexually Transmitted Infections. The herbal medicines have many advantages: have no side effects, better patient tolerance and relatively less expensive. Locally available herbal practitioners or healers have practiced since past in this direction. Furthermore the acceptability of herbal medicines are greater to control these infections due to the social stigma associated with them and in case of women it is much more acceptable to discuss their problem with the traditional healers or herbal medical practitioners. In the present study thirty seven medicinal plants have been recorded for the treatment of Gonorrhoea and Syphilis and documented from South West Bengal of India.


Haque A.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Das Gupta R.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Chakravorty P.P.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Xenylla welchi was used to evaluate toxicity of two herbicide formulations, pretilachlor (50 EC) and pendimethalin (30 EC) under laboratory conditions. Twenty four hours LC 50 value of pretilachlor and pendimethalin formulations on Xenylla welchi were 72.7 and 190.0 g a.i/ha respectively which were less than their corresponding recommended agricultural doses. Again pretilachlor attained fastest LT 50 (110 min) followed by pendimethalin (140 min). Significant reductions in hatching success were noted with the application of both the herbicide formulations at all doses excepting 1/ 8 and 1/ 10th of LC 50 (9.1, 7.3 and 23.8, 19.0 g a.i/ha for pretilachlor and pendimethalin, respectively). Hatching success of the test specimens recorded 44.1 and 63.3% reduction from control for the highest applied dose (1/2 of LC 50) of pretilachlor and pendimethalin, respectively. Juveniles of Xenylla welchi exposed to 1/ 6, 1/ 8 and 1/ 10th LC 50 for pretilachlor (12.1, 9.1, 7.3 g a.i/ha) and 1/ 8 and 1/ 10th LC 50 for pendimethalin (23.8, 19.0 g ai/ha) survived and exhibited increased moulting frequency (7 moultings in 28 days in both the herbicide treatments) in comparison to control (8 moulting in 42 days). Test specimens required 26.0 ± 1.2 and 28.1 ± 2.1 days to attain sexual maturity exposed to pretilachlor and pendamethalin respectively which was significantly less than control (42 ± 2.6 days). © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Paul T.,Vidyasagar University | Das A.,Vidyasagar University | Mandal A.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Halder S.K.,Vidyasagar University | And 3 more authors.
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2014

A monomeric alkaline keratinolytic serine protease with a molecular weight 190.24 kDa was purified from Paenibacillus woosongensis TKB2 in submerged fermentation using waste chicken feather as substrate. The purified keratinase was highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50 °C, requiring Mo+ for increasing fourfold enzyme activities, showed substrate specificity for keratin powder. The Km and Vmax for the enzyme was 1.4 mg/ml and 251.1 U/ml respectively. An initial analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum in the ultraviolet range revealed that the protease is predominantly an α-helix structure. In the presence of 7 mg/ml (w/v) detergents, the protease was active and retained 40–90 % activity. Therefore, it may have a possible application in laundry formulations. The keratinase combined with detergent was able to destain blood, fruit juice and turmeric stained cloth within 30 min without damaging the fabric structure and strength. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Paul T.,Vidyasagar University | Das A.,Vidyasagar University | Mandal A.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Halder S.K.,Vidyasagar University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Production of alkaline keratinolytic protease related to various industrial applications, especially for enzyme detergents combination, was done from a selected bacterial strain Paenibacillus woosongensis TKB2. Enzyme yield was maximized by optimizing the culture conditions of a low-cost culture medium under submerged condition with a lab scale fermentor of 5 L capacity. The highest keratinolytic activity was obtained 76.05 U/mL by maintaining fermentation conditions of keratinase production at 30 C, 40% dissolved oxygen level at 500 rotations per minute (rpm) and an initial pH of media of 8.5 supplemented with 0.76% chicken feathers. In fact, the crude enzyme showed four proteolytic zones in casein zymography which revealed that the crude keratinase contained four hydrolytic enzymes. The crude keratinase was active in broad range of pH (7-10.5) with keratin as a substrate. However, it exhibited highest activities at pH 9. The crude keratinase which was strongly inactivated by Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin and leupeptin, indicated that it was a serine type protease. The crude enzyme showed remarkable stability with EDTA and was compatible with commercially available detergents. The enzyme bead prepared by 1.5% CMC improved significant storage stability with commercial detergent powder making it suitable for commercial exploitation. The alkaline keratinase of P. woosongensis TKB2 showed a potential application in the laundry industry by removing the blood stains from the surgical cloths and gave a remarkable result towards removing the composite stain of blood, egg yolk and chocolate stain in a short period without changing texture, strength (27.18 g/tex) of cloths and cloths fibers. The effluents generates after cloth washing with this detergent formulation does not effect on aquatic ecosystem. Thus, this aqua-friendly detergent formulation can be used to avoid pollution problems associated with effluent generates after cloths washing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Changdar C.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Maiti M.K.,Mahishadal Raj College | Maiti M.,Vidyasagar University
Iranian Journal of Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2013

A solid travelling salesman problem (STSP) is a travelling salesman problem (TSP) where the salesman visits all the cities only once in his tour using different conveyances to travel from one city to another. Costs and environmental effect factors for travelling between the cities using different conveyances are different. Goal of the problem is to find a complete tour with minimum cost that damages the environment least. An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Performance of the algorithm for the problem is compared with another soft computing algorithm, Genetic Algorithm(GA). Problems are solved with crisp as well as fuzzy costs. For fuzzy cost and environmental effect factors, cost function as well as environment constraints become fuzzy. As optimization of a fuzzy objective function is not well defined, fuzzy possibility approach is used to get optimal decision. To test the efficiency of the algorithm, the problem is solved considering only one conveyance facility ignoring the environmental effect constraint, i.e., a classical two dimensional TSP (taking standard data sets from TSPLIB for solving the problem). Different numerical examples are used for illustration.


Das Gupta R.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Chakravorty P.P.,Raja Nl Khan Womens College | Kaviraj A.,Kalyani University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

The 96 h LC 50 values of six insecticides were determined on a non-target epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus under laboratory conditions. Cypermethrin was found most toxic to P. excavatus (LC 50-0.008 mg/kg), followed by endosulfan (LC 50-0.03 mg/kg), carbaryl (LC 50-6.07 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (LC 50-7.3 mg/kg), aldicarb (LC 50-10.63 mg/kg) and monocrotophos (LC 50-13.04 mg/kg). When these LC 50 values were compared with their respective recommended agricultural doses, aldicarb and carbaryl appeared more dangerous than other pesticides because of their lower LC 50 values than their respective recommended agricultural dose. Mean lethal time to cause 50% mortality at recommended agricultural dose (LT 50) also indicated that aldicarb achieved the fastest LT 50 (26 h) followed by endosulfan (38 h) and carbaryl (44 h) indicating the danger of these pesticides to P. excavatus. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


PubMed | Raja Nl Khan Womens College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

Agriculture is an important part of the economy of the undivided Midnapore district. Agricultural land is its asset and most importantly its means of sustenance as well as survival. Earthworms are invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matters in soils. Since the intestines of earthworms harbor wide ranges of microorganisms, enzymes, hormones etc., these half digested materials decompose rapidly and are transformed into a stabilized material called vermicompost which is very useful for increasing the soil fertility. One has to look for these characters before recommending any species for vermiculture. In the present study, Perionyx excavatus specimens were collected from the undivided Midnapore district and from the Earthworms gut, bacteria, fungus, actinobacteria, and yeast were isolated and identified using various morphological and biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were identified using morphological study, staining techniques, and different biochemical tests such as catalase test, KOH test, H2 SO4 test, Starch hydrolysis test, oxidase test, and sucrose hydrolysis test. All the fungal, actinobacteria, and yeast isolates were subjected to staining and morphological characterization (color and texture of fungal colony). Bacterial isolates of genus Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterococci, Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were identified. Among the fungal isolates Aspergilus sp., and P. boydii were identified. Streptomyces sp., Nocardia sp. among the actinobacteria and Candida sp. among yeast were also found to be present in earthworm gut and these might play an important role along with the earthworm to increase the quality and fertility of soil.

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