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PubMed | Yonsei University, Bankstown and Concord Hospitals, Peking Union Medical College, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Age, sex, smoking, and family history are risk factors for colorectal cancer in Asia. The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) scoring system was developed to identify subjects with a high risk for advanced neoplasm (AN). We tested an algorithm that combined APCS scores with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening.We performed a multicenter prospective study, enrolling asymptomatic individuals older than 40 years old in 12 Asia-Pacific regions from December 2011 to December 2013. APCS scores were calculated for each individual (0-1 = low risk [LR], 2-3 = medium risk [MR], and 4-7 = high risk [HR] for AN). LR and MR subjects were offered FIT and referred for early colonoscopies if FIT results were positive. HR subjects were offered colonoscopies. The proportions of subjects with ANs were determined for each group based on colonoscopy findings; odd ratios for LR and MR subjects were calculated compared to LR individuals. We calculated the sensitivity of the APCS-FIT algorithm in identifying subjects with AN.A total of 5657 subjects were recruited: 646 subjects (11.4%) were considered LR, 3243 subjects (57.3%) were considered MR, and 1768 subjects (31.3%) were considered HR for AN. The proportions of individuals with an AN in these groups were 1.5%, 5.1%, and 10.9%, respectively. Compared with LR group, MR and HR subjects had a 3.4-fold increase and a 7.8-fold increase in risk for AN, respectively. A total of 70.6% subjects with AN (95% confidence interval: 65.6%-75.1%) and 95.1% subjects with invasive cancers (95% confidence interval: 82.2%-99.2%) were correctly instructed to undergo early colonoscopy examination.The APCS scoring system, which is based on age, sex, family history, and smoking, is a useful tool for determining risk for colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma in asymptomatic subjects. Use of the APCS score-based algorithm in triaging subjects for FIT or colonoscopy can substantially reduce colonoscopy workload.

PubMed | National Kidney and Transplant Institute Hospital, Chonnam National University, Nguyen Tri Phuong Hospital, Bach Mai Hospital and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical mycology | Year: 2016

Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S=susceptible, S-DD= susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C.albicans (35.9%), C.tropicalis (30.7%), C.parapsilosis (15.7%), and C.glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C.albicans (S=99.7%) but lower for C.tropicalis (S=75.8%, S-DD=6.1%), C.glabrata (S-DD=94.9%), and C.parapsilosis (S=94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C.albicans, C.tropicalis, and C.parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C.tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Telisinghe P.U.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Chong C.F.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Carcinoma of the esophagus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the past three decades, the incidence of SCC has been reported to be decreasing whereas esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC) is increasing. This study assessed the trend of esophageal cancer in Brunei Darussalam over a three decades period. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer registry was searched for esophageal cancers from 1986 to 2012. Data on age, gender, racial groups (Malays, Chinese, Indigenous and foreign nationals) and histology type were collected. The rate (ASR) and Age Specific Incidence rate (ASIR) were calculated. Results: The predominant tumor type was SCC which accounted for 89% of all esophageal cancer. The gender ratio was 2.25: 1 (male: female) and the mean age at diagnosis was 66.9±12.9 years, significantly younger for esophageal AC (57.2±16.0) compared to SCC (68.1±12.0, p<0.05), and among the foreign nationals (p<0.05 for trend). The proportions of SCC among all esophageal cancers in the various racial groups were: Malays (87.8%), Chinese (100%), Indigenous (100%) and foreign nationals (20%). None of the Chinese and Indigenous groups were diagnosed with esophageal AC. The overall ASR for esophageal cancer was 2.1/100,000; 2.0/100,000 for SCC with a declining trend and 0.17/100,000 for esophageal AC, without any trend observed. Among the two major racial groups; the Chinese has higher ASR (3.42/100,000) compared to the Malays (ASR 0.95/100,000). Conclusions: SCC is the predominant tumor type of esophageal cancer in Brunei Darussalam and more common among the Chinese. There was a declining trend in the incidence of SCC but not for esophageal AC.

Lim K.S.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Clinical Radiology | Year: 2010

Melioidosis is a serious infection that is associated with high mortality. It is due to a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei which is an environmental saprophyte found in wet soils. Melioidosis is endemic to northern Australia and the Southeast Asia. However, there is now increasing number of reports of imported cases to regions where this infection has not been previously encountered. Almost any organ can be affected. Like many other conditions, radiological imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic workup of melioidosis. Awareness of the various radiological manifestations can help direct appropriate investigations to achieve early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Generally, there are no known characteristic features on imaging that can specifically differentiate melioidosis from other infections. However, the "honeycomb" appearance has been described to be characteristic for large melioidosis liver abscesses. Simultaneous involvement of various organs is also characteristics. To date, there are few data available on the radiological manifestations of melioidosis. The present pictorial essay describes melioidosis affecting the various organs. © 2009 The Royal College of Radiologists.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Lim K.S.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Sharif F.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2010

Context Melioidosis is endemic to tropical regions and, despite the common occurrence of intra-abdominal abscesses, pancreatic involvement in melioidosis has not previously been reported. Objective We report our experience with pancreatic melioidosis. Patients All 65 patients treated for melioidosis who had computed tomography (CT) scans were identified from prospective databases and were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures A detailed review of cases with pancreas involvement was carried out. Results There were four cases (three males and one female; median age 29.5 years, range: 25-48 years) with pancreatic melioidosis, giving a prevalence of 6.2%. All had predisposing conditions (two had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and two had thalassemia) for melioidosis. Fever (100%), anorexia (100%), weight loss (100%), rigor (75%) and abdominal pain (75%) were the most common symptoms at presentation and the median duration of symptoms before presentation was six weeks (range: 2-8 weeks). All pancreatic abscesses were detected on CT scan. Multiple foci involvement was common (3 to 6 sites): blood (4 patients), liver (3 patients), psoas muscle (2 patients), spleen (2 patients), infected ascites (2 patients) and lung (1 patient). Pancreatic involvement ranged from multi-focal micro-abscesses to focal large abscesses and involved all parts of the pancreas (body 100%, head 75% and tail 50%). Associated pancreatic findings included splenic vein thrombosis, peripancreatic inflammation and peripancreatic fat streaking. All the pancreatic abscesses were resolved with antibiotics without requiring pancreatic abscess drainage (including one patient who died from disseminated melioidosis). Conclusion Pancreatic involvement typically occurs as part of multi-organ involvement and commonly manifests as multifoci micro-abscesses. Associated pancreatic abnormalities were also common. All responded to treatment without requiring drainage.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Jalihal A.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Biliary interventions during pregnancy are associated with risks to both the pregnancy and developing fetus. In this report we summarize our experience with endoscopic interventions including endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the management of biliary disorders during pregnancy. METHODS: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCPs) performed between May 2003 through January 2010 (n=607) were identified from our database, and cases of interventions during pregnancy were reviewed. All procedures were done using conscious sedation and lead shielding. RESULTS: Nine ERCPs (1.5%) were performed in 8 pregnant patients. Their median gestational period was 22 weeks (range, <2-36 weeks). Two, 5 and 2 patients were in their first, second and third trimester, respectively. Indications for ERCP included obstructive jaundice (6 patients) cholangitis (2), and acute pancreatitis/obstructive jaundice (1). Two patients underwent EUS before ERCP. Fluoroscopy was used in 5 ERCPs (median 12 seconds; range 2-20 seconds), and the overall time for a ERCP ranged from 5 to 25 minutes. During ERCP endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 5 patients, stenting in 6, and balloon clearance in 3. One procedure caused complication in induction of labor. During pregnancy, there were 4 non-procedure related complications including acute cholecystitis (1), HELLP syndrome resulting in spontaneous abortion (1) and stent migrations (2). Five pregnancies had uncomplicated term deliveries, whereas 2 required urgent caesarian sections (one for fetal distress and 1 for cholangitis secondary to stent migration). One patient was well in her second trimester during follow-up. Seven babies were well at birth with median APGAR scores of 9, and 10 at 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. One baby died of sudden death syndrome at age of 40 days. CONCLUSIONS: ERCP is a safe procedure for pregnant women. It can be conducted for biliary stenting and subsequent clearance after deliveries. EUS has a complementary role. Different strategies can be applied according to the conditions or expertise of endoscopists. Copyright © 2010, Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. All rights reserved.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Jalihal A.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2010

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is common in clinical practice. Heterotopic gastric mucosal patch of the proximal esophagus (HGMP) is reported to cause LPR symptoms. This study assessed the prevalence of LPR symptoms and correlation with the size of HGMP. Four hundred and sixty-two patients undergoing endoscopy were carefully questioned regarding LPR symptoms experienced in the previous 12 weeks. The size of the HGMP was assessed and documented during endoscopy. Clinicopatho-logical classiWcations were assigned (types I-V) accordingly. HGMP [median one patch (range 1-3), median size 15 mm [3-35] was detected in 26 (19 HGM type I and 7 HGM type II] patients giving a prevalence of 5.6%. Among the indications, there were signiWcantly more LPR symptoms as referral indications among patients with HGMP. There were no signiWcant diVerences in the endoscopic Wndings. On speciWc enquiries, signiWcantly more HGMP patients had experienced any LPR symptoms (73.1 vs. 25.9%, p < 0.001) speciWcally chronic cough (p = 0.002), throat discomfort/hoarseness (p < 0.001), globus sensation (p = 0.004), regurgitation (p < 0.001). HGMP patients also had more heartburn (p = 0.001). Larger HGMP (≥15 mm) was only associated with more chronic cough (p = 0.022). In conclusion, patients with HGMP have signiWcantly more LPR symptoms. However, most were mild and detected through speciWc enquiries. Interestingly, the size of HGMP did not signiWcantly aVect the prevalence of LPR symptoms. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Telisinghe P.U.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Jalihal A.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an uncommon autoimmune cholestatic disease that predominantly affects women. Certain human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have been reported to be associated with susceptibility for PBC. We describe the profiles of PBC in Brunei Darussalam. METHODS: All patients with PBC (n=10) were identified from our prospective databases. The HLA profiles (n=9, PBC) were compared to controls (n=65) and patients with autoimmune hepatitis (n=13, AIH). RESULTS: All patients were women with a median age of 51 years (27-83) at diagnosis. The prevalence rate of the disease was 25.6/million-population and the estimated incidence rate varied from 0 to 10.3/million-population per year. Chinese (41.15/million) and the indigenous (42.74/million) groups had higher prevalence rates compared to Malays (22.62/ million). The prevalence among female population was 54.6/ million-population. All patients were referred for abnormal liver profiles. Five patients had symptoms at presentations: jaundice (20%), fatigue (20%), arthralgia (30%) and pruritus (20%). Serum anti-mitochondrial antibody was positive in 80% of the patients. Overlap with AIH was seen in 30%. Liver biopsies (n=8) showed stage I (n=2), II (n=4) and III (n=2) fibrosis. There were no significant differences in the HLA profiles between PBC and AIH. Compared to the controls, PBC patients had significantly more HLA class I alleles specifically B7 (P=0.003), Cw7 (P=0.002) and Cw12 (P=0.007) but not the class II alleles. At a median follow-up of 23.5 months (2 to 108), all patients were alive without evidence of disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: PBC is also a predominant female disorder in our local setting and most had mild disease. The HLA profiles of our patients were different to what have been reported. © 2010, Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int.

Basir N.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Yong A.M.L.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection | Year: 2012

Splenic abscess is uncommon and is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacilli are the most commonly isolated organisms, followed by Gram-positive cocci. However, the predominant organisms found depend on the geographic location. Shewanella putrefaciens is a Gram-negative non-fermentative oxidative bacillus found in the environment. Infection usually manifests with a number of clinical syndromes, most commonly as skin or soft tissue infections, typically in patients whose immune system is compromised. Intra-abdominal abscess is extremely rare. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with S. putrefaciens splenic abscesses as the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus, which was successfully managed with a course of antibiotic therapy. © 2011.

Chong V.H.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital | Chong C.F.,Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha RIPAS Hospital
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery | Year: 2010

Introduction: Post-cholecystectomy clip migration (PCCM) is rare and can lead to complications which include clip-related biliary stones. Most have been reported as case reports. This study reviews cases of clip migration reported in the literatures. Method: Searches and reviews of the literatures from "PubMed," "EMBASE," and "Google Scholar" search engines using the keywords "clip migration" and "bile duct stones" were carried out. Eighty cases from 69 publications were identified but details for only 69 cases were available for the study. Results: The median age at presentations of PCCM was 60 years old (range, 31 to 88 years; female, 61. 8%) and the median time from the initial cholecystectomy to clinical presentations was 26 months (range, 11 days to 20 years). Of primary surgeries, 23. 2% was for complicated gallstones disease. The median number of clips placed during surgery was six (range, two to more than ten clips). Common diagnoses at presentations of PCCM were obstructive jaundice (37. 7%), cholangitis (27. 5%), biliary colic (18. 8%), and acute pancreatitis (8. 7%). The median number of migrated clip was one (range, one to six). Biliary dilatation and strictures were encountered in 74. 1% and 28. 6%, respectively. Of the 69 cases of PCCM-associated complications, 53 (77%) were successfully treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), 14 (20. 2%) with surgery, and one (1. 4%) with successful percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography treatment. One patient had spontaneous clearance of PCCM. There was no reported mortality related to PCCM. Conclusion: PCCM can occur at any time but typically occur at a median of 2 years after cholecystectomy. Clinical presentations are similar to those with primary or secondary choledocholithiasis. Most can be managed successfully with ERCP. © 2009 The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.

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