Raith GmbH

Dortmund, Germany

Raith GmbH

Dortmund, Germany
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Fridmann J.R.,Raith America Inc. | Sanabia J.E.,Raith America Inc. | Rasche M.,Raith GmbH
Conference Proceedings from the International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis | Year: 2016

For large area, high resolution SEM imaging applications, such as integrated circuit (IC) reverse engineering and connectomics [1-3], SEM instruments are limited by small, uncalibrated fields of view (FOVs) and imprecise sample positioning. These limitations affect image capture throughput, requiring more stage drive time and larger image overlaps. Furthermore, these instrument limitations introduce stitching errors in 4 dimensions of the image data, X, Y, Z and I (signal intensity). Throughput and stitching errors are cited challenges [2] and software alone cannot tenably correct stitching errors in large image datasets [3]. Furthermore, software corrections can introduce additional errors into the image data via the scaling, rotation, and twisting of the images. So software has proven insufficient for reverse engineering of modern integrated circuits. Our methodology addresses the challenges brought on by small, uncalibrated FOVs and imprecise sample positioning by combining the resolution and flexibility of the SEM instrument with the accuracy (of the order 10 nm), stability, and automation of the electron beam lithography (EBL) instrument. With its unique combination of high resolution SEM imaging (up to 50,000 pixels x 50,000 pixels for each image), laser interferometer stage positioning, and FOV mapping, the reverse engineering scanning electron microscope (RE-SEM) produces the most accurate large area, high resolution images directly acquired by an SEM instrument [4]. Since the absolute position of each pixel is known ultimately to the accuracy afforded by the laser interferometer stage, these images can be stacked (3D-stitched) with the highest possible accuracy. Thus, the RE-SEM has been used to successfully reconstruct a current PC-CPU at the 22 nm node. Copyright © 2016 ASM International® All rights reserved.

Juodkazis S.,Swinburne University of Technology | Rosa L.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bauerdick S.,Raith GmbH | Peto L.,Raith GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Three dimensional (3D) ion beam lithography (IBL) is used to directly pattern 3D photonic crystal (PhC) structures in crystalline titania. The process is maskless and direct write. The slanted pore 3D structures with pore diameters of 100 nm having aspect ratio of 8 were formed. It is shown that chemical enhancement of titania removal up to 5.2 times is possible in XeF 2 gas for the closest nozzle-to-sample distance; the enhancement was ̃ 1.5 times for the actual 3D patterning due to a sample tilt. Tolerances of structural parameters and optimization of IBL processing required for the fabrication of PhCs with full photonic bandgap in visible spectral range in rutile are outlined. Application potential of 3D-IBL is discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Rosa L.,Swinburne University of Technology | Sun K.,Hokkaido University | Mizeikis V.,University of Shizuoka | Bauerdick S.,Raith GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

A method for practical area upscaling of nanopatterning for light-harvesting and photocatalytic applications is presented. Large area electron beam lithography is used to design patterns of simple-shape nanoparticles. After evaporation of gold, ion beam lithography is used to slice nanoparticles with grooves as narrow as 17 ± 3 nm in width for the required spectral performance and light field enhancement. It is demonstrated by systematic numerical simulations that cutting grooves into the Si and SiO 2 substrates up to a ?10 nm depth augments the volume where the light-field enhancement occurs. The dominant component of the field enhancement in the groove is |Ez|2, perpendicular to the substrate's surface. The application potential of 3D-tailored nanoparticles in light harvesting applications is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Mo L.,Zhejiang University | Yang L.,Zhejiang University | Yang L.,Arizona State University | Nadzeyka A.,Raith GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Gold absorbers based on plasmonic tapered coaxial holes (PTCHs) are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. An average absorption of over 0.93 is obtained theoretically in a broad wavelength range from 300 nm to 900 nm without polarization sensitivity due to the structural symmetry. Strong scattering of the incident light by the tapered coaxial holes is the main reason for the high absorption in the short wavelength range below about 550 nm, while gap surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the taper dominate the resonance-induced high absorption in the long wavelength range. Combining two PTCHs with different structural parameters can further enhance the absorption and thus increase the spectral bandwidth, which is verified by a sample fabricated by focused ion beam milling. This design is promising to be extended to other metals to realize effective and efficient light harvesting and absorption. ©2014 Optical Society of America

Bauerdick S.,Raith GmbH
Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Patterning with a focused ion beam (FIB) is an extremely versatile fabrication process that can be used to create microscale and nanoscale designs on the surface of practically any solid sample material. Based on the type of ion-sample interaction utilized, FIB-based manufacturing can be both subtractive and additive, even in the same processing step. Indeed, the capability of easily creating three-dimensional patterns and shaping objects by milling and deposition is probably the most recognized feature of ion beam lithography (IBL) and micromachining. However, there exist several other techniques, such as ion implantation- and ion damage-based patterning and surface functionalization types of processes that have emerged as valuable additions to the nanofabrication toolkit and that are less widely known. While fabrication throughput, in general, is arguably low due to the serial nature of the direct-writing process, speed is not necessarily a problem in these IBL applications that work with small ion doses. Here we provide a comprehensive review of ion beam lithography in general and a practical guide to the individual IBL techniques developed to date. Special attention is given to applications in nanofabrication. © 2014 Alexandra Joshi-Imre and Sven Bauerdick.

Liu X.,Hefei University of Technology | Luo T.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Huang W.,Hefei University of Technology | Piaszenski G.,Raith GmbH
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2012

Micro-nano-scale roughness specimens are highly demanded to synthetically calibrate the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) instrument. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) specimens with controllable main surface evaluation parameters were designed. In order to improve the design accuracy, the genetic algorithm was introduced into the conventional digital filter method. A primary 3D calibration specimen with the dimension of 10 μm × 10 μm was fabricated by electron beam lithography. Atomic force microscopy characterizations demonstrated that the statistical and spectral parameters of the fabricated specimen match well with the designed values. Such a kind of 3D specimens has the potential to calibrate the SPM for applications in quantitative surface evaluations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Bischoff L.,Helmholtz Center Dresden | Pilz W.,Helmholtz Center Dresden | Mazarov P.,Ruhr University Bochum | Mazarov P.,Raith GmbH | Wieck A.D.,Ruhr University Bochum
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2010

Four different liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), working with pure Bi as well as with Bi containing alloys (Au13Bi87, Ga 38Bi62, Ga35Bi60Li5) were investigated with respect to the emission behavior as a function of current and temperature, the mass spectra and the energy distribution of the individual ion species. Additionally, for the pure Bi-LMIS the sputtering rates for Bi ions and clusters on Si, SiO2 and Ge substrates were compared with that of Ga projectile ions using a mass separating focused ion beam system. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Japrung D.,Imperial College London | Japrung D.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Bahrami A.,Imperial College London | Nadzeyka A.,Raith GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein plays an important role in the DNA replication process in a wide range of organisms. It binds to ssDNA to prevent premature reannealing and to protect it from degradation. Current understanding of SSB/ssDNA interaction points to a complex mechanism, including SSB motion along the DNA strand. We report on the first characterization of this interaction at the single-molecule level using solid-state nanopore sensors, namely without any labeling or surface immobilization. Our results show that the presence of SSB on the ssDNA can control the speed of nanopore translocation, presumably due to strong interactions between SSB and the nanopore surface. This enables nanopore-based detection of ssDNA fragments as short as 37 nt, which is normally very difficult with solid-state nanopore sensors, due to constraints in noise and bandwidth. Notably, this fragment is considerably shorter than the 65 nt binding motif, typically required for SSB binding at high salt concentrations. The nonspecificity of SSB binding to ssDNA further suggests that this approach could be used for fragment sizing of short ssDNA. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Japrung D.,Imperial College London | Japrung D.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Dogan J.,Uppsala University | Freedman K.J.,Drexel University | And 6 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Partially or fully disordered proteins are instrumental for signal-transduction pathways; however, many mechanistic aspects of these proteins are not well-understood. For example, the number and nature of intermediate states along the binding pathway is still a topic of intense debate. To shed light on the conformational heterogeneity of disordered protein domains and their complexes, we performed single-molecule experiments by translocating disordered proteins through a nanopore embedded within a thin dielectric membrane. This platform allows for single-molecule statistics to be generated without the need of fluorescent labels or other modification groups. These studies were performed on two different intrinsically disordered protein domains, a binding domain from activator of thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) and the nuclear coactivator binding domain of CREB-binding protein (NCBD), along with their bimolecular complex. Our results demonstrate that both ACTR and NCBD populate distinct conformations upon translocation through the nanopore. The folded complex of the two disordered domains, on the other hand, translocated as one conformation. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that NCBD undergoes a charge reversal under high salt concentrations. This was verified by both translocation statistics as well as by measuring the ζ-potential. Electrostatic interactions have been previously suggested to play a key role in the association of intrinsically disordered proteins, and the observed behavior adds further complexity to their binding reactions. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Oukhaled A.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | Oukhaled A.,CNRS Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures | Cressiot B.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | Bacri L.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | And 7 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

We report experimentally the dynamic properties of the entry and transport of unfolded and native proteins through a solid-state nanopore as a function of applied voltage, and we discuss the experimental data obtained as compared to theory. We show an exponential increase in the event frequency of current blockades and an exponential decrease in transport times as a function of the electric driving force. The normalized current blockage ratio remains constant or decreases for folded or unfolded proteins, respectively, as a function of the transmembrane potential. The unfolded protein is stretched under the electric driving force. The dwell time of native compact proteins in the pore is almost 1 order of magnitude longer than that of unfolded proteins, and the event frequency for both protein conformations is low. We discuss the possible phenomena hindering the transport of proteins through the pores, which could explain these anomalous dynamics, in particular, electro-osmotic counterflow and protein adsorption on the nanopore wall. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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