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Dortmund, Germany

Bauerdick S.,Raith GmbH
Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Patterning with a focused ion beam (FIB) is an extremely versatile fabrication process that can be used to create microscale and nanoscale designs on the surface of practically any solid sample material. Based on the type of ion-sample interaction utilized, FIB-based manufacturing can be both subtractive and additive, even in the same processing step. Indeed, the capability of easily creating three-dimensional patterns and shaping objects by milling and deposition is probably the most recognized feature of ion beam lithography (IBL) and micromachining. However, there exist several other techniques, such as ion implantation- and ion damage-based patterning and surface functionalization types of processes that have emerged as valuable additions to the nanofabrication toolkit and that are less widely known. While fabrication throughput, in general, is arguably low due to the serial nature of the direct-writing process, speed is not necessarily a problem in these IBL applications that work with small ion doses. Here we provide a comprehensive review of ion beam lithography in general and a practical guide to the individual IBL techniques developed to date. Special attention is given to applications in nanofabrication. © 2014 Alexandra Joshi-Imre and Sven Bauerdick. Source


Liu X.,Hefei University of Technology | Luo T.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Huang W.,Hefei University of Technology | Piaszenski G.,Raith GmbH
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2012

Micro-nano-scale roughness specimens are highly demanded to synthetically calibrate the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) instrument. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) specimens with controllable main surface evaluation parameters were designed. In order to improve the design accuracy, the genetic algorithm was introduced into the conventional digital filter method. A primary 3D calibration specimen with the dimension of 10 μm × 10 μm was fabricated by electron beam lithography. Atomic force microscopy characterizations demonstrated that the statistical and spectral parameters of the fabricated specimen match well with the designed values. Such a kind of 3D specimens has the potential to calibrate the SPM for applications in quantitative surface evaluations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Bischoff L.,Helmholtz Center Dresden | Pilz W.,Helmholtz Center Dresden | Mazarov P.,Ruhr University Bochum | Mazarov P.,Raith GmbH | Wieck A.D.,Ruhr University Bochum
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2010

Four different liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), working with pure Bi as well as with Bi containing alloys (Au13Bi87, Ga 38Bi62, Ga35Bi60Li5) were investigated with respect to the emission behavior as a function of current and temperature, the mass spectra and the energy distribution of the individual ion species. Additionally, for the pure Bi-LMIS the sputtering rates for Bi ions and clusters on Si, SiO2 and Ge substrates were compared with that of Ga projectile ions using a mass separating focused ion beam system. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Mo L.,Zhejiang University | Yang L.,Zhejiang University | Yang L.,Arizona State University | Nadzeyka A.,Raith GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Gold absorbers based on plasmonic tapered coaxial holes (PTCHs) are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. An average absorption of over 0.93 is obtained theoretically in a broad wavelength range from 300 nm to 900 nm without polarization sensitivity due to the structural symmetry. Strong scattering of the incident light by the tapered coaxial holes is the main reason for the high absorption in the short wavelength range below about 550 nm, while gap surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the taper dominate the resonance-induced high absorption in the long wavelength range. Combining two PTCHs with different structural parameters can further enhance the absorption and thus increase the spectral bandwidth, which is verified by a sample fabricated by focused ion beam milling. This design is promising to be extended to other metals to realize effective and efficient light harvesting and absorption. ©2014 Optical Society of America Source


Keskinbora K.,Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart) | Grevent C.,Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart) | Bechtel M.,Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart) | Weigand M.,Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart) | And 9 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP) are to date very successful focusing optics for X-rays. Established methods of fabrication are rather complex and based on electron beam lithography (EBL). Here, we show that ion beam lithography (IBL) may advantageously simplify their preparation. A FZP operable from the extreme UV to the limit of the hard X-ray was prepared and tested from 450 eV to 1500 eV. The trapezoidal profile of the FZP favorably activates its 2nd order focus. The FZP with an outermost zone width of 100 nm allows the visualization of features down to 61, 31 and 21 nm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd order focus respectively. Measured efficiencies in the 1st and 2nd order of diffraction reach the theoretical predictions. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source

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