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Griffin D.J.K.,Rail Safety and Standards Board
Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2014 | Year: 2015

RSSB has developed geospatial models (GeoSRM) of rail safety hazards across the mainline rail network in Great Britain (GB). The GeoSRM, shows how risk is distributed across the network, rather than generating a single national estimate for each type of hazard. The GeoSRM is web-based allowing users to submit queries on the risk level for specified regions, routes, hazard types, train operators, services or classes of rolling stock, and display the risk levels overlaid on a map. The pilot model of the GeoSRM is based around three hazardous events: station slips, trips & falls, railway suicides and train derailments. Station slips, trips & falls and suicides are modelled statistically with generalised linear models, taking into account geospatial variation in population characteristics and station properties. Whilst describing the GeoSRM framework in general, this paper focusses on the modelling of train derailments. This takes into consideration the geospatial variation in the frequency of derailments, the probability of derailment escalation and the consequence of any resulting derailment. Derailment causes and escalation probabilities have been linked to the underlying assets that could lead to a derailment e.g. linking derailment due to landslip to presence of cuttings. The paper shows how geospatial risk models can be developed and applied within a railway environment, and how models of this type could be used to inform decision making. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group.

Lane J.S.,Rail Safety and Standards Board
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Forensic Engineering | Year: 2011

Captain Galton's 1862 paper identifies that 116 passengers were killed or injured in UK train accidents between 1854 and 1860, compared with only six passenger fatalities in the most recent comparable period today (2004-2010). When the number of passenger journeys is taken into account (163 435 678 per year in 1860 and 1?4 billion per year in 2010), itmay be concluded that British railways today are approximately 170 times safer. Galton provides a detailed analysis of the cause of 534 train accidents that were reported upon by the Board of Trade inspectors. He established thatmany accidentswere due to multiple causes and were preventable in the majority of cases. He found that although there were instances where the cause of the accident was attributable to negligence of railway staff, the main causes were inappropriate methods of working and ineffectivemanagement. Galton's recommendations for a safe railway involving greater cooperation between railway companies, the sharing of good practice and learning from accidents are now the reality in today's railways.

Nowell R.,Rail Safety and Standards Board | Sutton A.,53 Broadway
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2011

In the major railway accidents in Great Britain that have occurred in the past 10 years it became increasingly apparent that a significant number of fatalities and serious injuries had arisen as a result of passengers being thrown out through the vehicle windows. This article describes the work that has been carried out to establish the circumstances related to passenger ejection and the performance of existing glazing systems. It then considers the consequences of making passenger vehicle windows more resistant, both in terms of better containment and any detrimental effects on using the windows as potential escape routes or as a means of access by emergency services. The final part of the work was to produce a specification that would give the desired improvement in safety performance and to establish a practical method of performance demonstration by testing. © SAGE Publications Ltd 2011.

Evans S.,Rail Safety and Standards Board
Rail Human Factors: Supporting Reliability, Safety and Cost Reduction | Year: 2013

RSSB and rail industry stakeholders have beenworking together over the last few years' to develop an industry-wide strategy to increase the industry's capability to learn from operational experience, including incidents and accidents. Under this strategy, RSSB analysed a cross section of incident investigation reports and classifications in the Safety Management Information System (SMIS) database. This review highlighted how improvements could be made to incident investigation processes from a human factors perspective. In response to the limitations of the quality of the incident investigation reports, industry stakeholders commissioned RSSB to develop a training course for rail incident investigators to promote human factors understanding. This course provided an excellent opportunity to maximise the accuracy and validity of the data captured in SMIS by mapping the process and terminology of human factors issues and error classification with that used in the industry database. A human factors awareness training course was developed and cascaded across the industry via 'train the trainer'workshops in 2009. In order to assess the effectiveness and impact on the incident investigation process following implementation, the industry commissioned a formal evaluation of the training. The evaluation focused on two key users: the trainers and the incident investigators. The results demonstrated that the course had a positive impact on how rail companies investigate and manage human factors issues. Due to the success of the course, in 2012 the industry commissioned RSSB to deliver the training directly to incident investigators to further support them now and in the future. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.

Bevan A.,University of Huddersfield | Molyneux-Berry P.,University of Huddersfield | Eickhoff B.,Rail Safety and Standards Board | Burstow M.,A+ Network
Wear | Year: 2013

This paper summaries the development of a damage model to predict the deterioration rates of the wheel tread in terms of wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage. The model uses a description of a fleet's route diagram to characterise the duty cycle of the vehicle in terms of curve radius, cant deficiency and traction/braking performance. Using this duty cycle a large number of vehicle dynamics simulations are automatically conducted to calculate wheel-rail contact forces and predict the formation of wear and RCF damage, using a combination of the Archard and frictional energy-based (Tγ) damage models.The damage models have been validated using observation data (wear rates and maximum observed RCF damage) acquired from a range of vehicle fleets in Great Britain (GB). Results from the validation of the model are presented along with a review of the wheel turning and observation data.A piece-wise linear regression is fitted to the wear and RCF parameters predicted from the model to determine the damage rates for each wheelset type on the vehicle. These damage rates are used within the recently developed Wheelset Management Model (WMM) to describe how the attributes of the wheel (i.e. wheel diameter, profile shape and tread damage) deteriorate over time and trigger a maintenance or renewal activity when the condition of the wheel matches a particular limiting value.This work formed part of the rail industry research programme managed by the Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB), and funded by the Department for Transport, to increase the rolling stock functionality of the Vehicle Track Interaction Strategic Model (VTISM) tool. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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