Raigmore Hospital

Inverness, United Kingdom

Raigmore Hospital

Inverness, United Kingdom

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Carod-Artal F.J.,Raigmore Hospital | Carod-Artal F.J.,International University of Catalonia | Wichmann O.,Robert Koch Institute | Farrar J.,National University of Singapore | Gascon J.,University of Barcelona
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

Dengue is the second most common mosquito-borne disease affecting human beings. In 2009, WHO endorsed new guidelines that, for the first time, consider neurological manifestations in the clinical case classification for severe dengue. Dengue can manifest with a wide range of neurological features, which have been noted-depending on the clinical setting-in 0·5-21% of patients with dengue admitted to hospital. Furthermore, dengue was identified in 4-47% of admissions with encephalitis-like illness in endemic areas. Neurological complications can be categorised into dengue encephalopathy (eg, caused by hepatic failure or metabolic disorders), encephalitis (caused by direct virus invasion), neuromuscular complications (eg, Guillain-Barré syndrome or transient muscle dysfunctions), and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. However, overlap of these categories is possible. In endemic countries and after travel to these regions, dengue should be considered in patients presenting with fever and acute neurological manifestations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Macleod A.D.,University of Aberdeen | Taylor K.S.M.,Raigmore Hospital | Counsell C.E.,University of Aberdeen
Movement Disorders | Year: 2014

This study was undertaken to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mortality in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate which factors were associated with mortality. We conducted comprehensive searches of studies reporting a ratio of mortality in PD versus controls, descriptive survival measures, or factors predicting survival; assessed study quality; and extracted relevant data. Descriptive analysis, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed as appropriate. Eighty-eight studies were included in the review with variable study methods and quality. Almost all studies reported increased mortality in PD (vs. controls), with mortality ratios ranging from 0.9 to 3.8, with major between-study heterogeneity. Inception cohorts were more consistent with a pooled mortality ratio of approximately 1.5. Inception cohorts, measurements at longer follow-up duration, and older study recruitment year were associated with lower mortality ratios, but these findings were not robust in sensitivity analyses. Within studies, mortality ratios increased over time. No robust evidence was found that mortality has decreased after the introduction of levodopa (L-dopa). On average, PD survival reduced by approximately 5% every year of follow-up, although there was significant heterogeneity. In post-mortem studies, mean duration until death ranged from 6.9 to 14.3 years. Increasing age and presence of dementia were most commonly associated with increased mortality. Parkinson's disease is associated with increased mortality, but major heterogeneity is seen in estimates of mortality, which is probably explained by variable methodology and patient selection. Individual-patient-data meta-analysis of high-quality inception studies with long-term follow-up would be the optimal way to investigate the factors influencing mortality. © 2014 The Authors.


Davey A.,Raigmore Hospital | McAuley D.F.,Queen's University of Belfast | O'Kane C.M.,Queen's University of Belfast
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) comprise a spectrum of acute inflammatory pulmonary oedema resulting in refractory hypoxaemia in the absence of an underlying cardiogenic cause. There are multiple pulmonary and extrapulmonary causes and ALI/ARDS patients are a clinically heterogeneous group with associated high morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory injury to the alveolar epithelial and endothelial capillary membrane is a central event in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, and involves degradation of the basement membrane. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in a wide variety of pulmonary pathologies and are capable of degrading all components of the extracellular matrix including the basement membrane and key non-matrix mediators of lung injury such as chemokines and cell surface receptors. While many studies implicate MMPs in the injurious process, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the role of specific proteases at different phases of injury and repair. This article examines the role of MMPs in injury and repair of the alveolar epithelial-endothelial capillary barrier and discusses the potential for MMP modulation in the prevention and treatment of ALI. The need for further mechanistic and in vivo studies to inform appropriate subsequent clinical trials of MMP modulation will be highlighted. Copyright©ERS 2011.


Carod-Artal F.J.,Raigmore Hospital | Carod-Artal F.J.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Pain Research | Year: 2014

In the last decade, several diagnostic criteria and definitions have been proposed for chronic migraine (CM). The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders- 3 beta, published in 2013, has revised CM diagnostic criteria. CM is defined as " headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, which has the features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month." Patients who meet the criteria for CM and for medication-overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. Worldwide, CM prevalence ranges 1%-3%, and its incidence has been estimated to be 2.5% per year. CM is associated with disability and poor quality of life. Modifiable risk factors include (among others): migraine progression (defined as an increase in frequency and severity of migraine attacks); medication and caffeine overuse; obesity; stressful life events; and snoring. CM patients have a significantly higher frequency of some comorbid conditions, including chronic pain, psychiatric disorders, respiratory illness, and some vascular risk factors. Management includes identification and control of comorbidities and risk factors that predispose to CM; treatment and prevention for medication overuse; early treatment for migraine attacks; and an adequate preventive therapy for CM. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of topiramate, amitriptyline, onabotulinumtoxinA, and cognitive-behavioral therapy in CM. © 2014 Carod-Artal.


Carod-Artal F.J.,Raigmore Hospital | Carod-Artal F.J.,International University of Catalonia
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2015

As the current Zaire ebolavirus disease outbreak in West Africa fades, the health problems of the more than 16,500 survivors have come to light. A wide range of mental and physical symptoms may occur during the convalescence stage. Reported symptoms of "post-Ebolavirus disease syndrome" (PEVDS) include chronic joint and muscle pain, fatigue, anorexia, hearing loss, blurred vision, headache, sleep disturbances, low mood and short-term memory problems. PEVDS has been associated with a decrease in functionality and difficulties to return to work. Further studies are needed to fully categorize the clinical spectrum of PEVDS. Diagnostic criteria and surrogate markers for the early diagnosis of PEVDS, and implementation of specialized health services to treat and follow-up survivors are also needed. © 2015 © Informa UK, Ltd.


The treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remains sub-optimal. Specialist CHF nurses are proven to improve care and reduce admission but developing such services, especially in remote areas, can be difficult. This study aimed: first, to assess the perceived acceptability and effectiveness of a new community based nurse-led heart failure service by general practitioners (GPs) in an area with a dispersed population; second, to assess the knowledge and learning needs of GPs; and third, to assess perceptions of the use of national guidelines and telehealth on heart failure management. The study was conducted in the Scottish Highlands, a large geographical area in the north of the UK which includes both rural and urban populations. The area has a total population of 240 000, approximately 60% of whom are within 1 hour travel time of the largest urban centre. A postal survey of all GPs (n = 260) and structured email survey of all CHF specialist nurses (n = 3) was performed. All responses were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, summarised and subjected to thematic analysis. Differences between GPs in 'rural', 'urban' or both 'urban & rural' was investigated using an F-test for continuous variables and a three-sample test for equality of proportions for nominal data. Questionnaires were returned from 83 GPs (32%) and all three CHF specialist nurses. In this sample there were only a few differences between GPs from 'rural', 'urban' and 'urban & rural'. There also appeared to be little difference in responses between those who had the experience of the CHF nurse service and those who had not. Overall, 32 GPs (39%) wished better, local access to echocardiography, while 63 (76%) wished access to testing for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Only 27 GPs (33%) referred all patients with CHF to hospital. A number of GPs stated that this was dependant on individual circumstances and the patient's ability to travel. The GPs were confident to initiate standard heart failure drugs although only 54 (65%) were confident in the initiation of beta-blockers. Most GPs (69%) had had experience of the CHF specialist nurse service and the responses were mixed. The GPs who had experienced the service appeared less confident that it would lead to reduced admission of patients to hospital (51% vs 77%, p = 0.046). Three main themes emerged from the nurse responses: service planning, communication and attitudinal changes after service embedment. This study demonstrates that a community based heart failure nurse service was not universally valued. Differences between urban and rural localities (communication) suggest that models of care derived from evidence based practice in urban areas may not be directly transferable to remote areas. Clearly, good communication among staff groups at all stages of implementation is important; however, despite best efforts and clinical trial evidence, specialist nurse services will not be welcomed by all doctors. Service providers and commissioners should be cognisant of the different roles of urban and rural GPs when designing such services. Among GPs there was a high degree of confidence with initiation and titration of drugs for heart failure with the exception of beta-blockers so clearly this is an area of ongoing educational need and support. Education and support should focus on ensuring that all doctors who care for patients with CHF have the skills and confidence to use medical therapies and specialist services as appropriate.


Bloe C.,Raigmore Hospital
Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2011

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that significantly increases the risk of ischaemic (embolic) stroke. The primary aim of this article is to help healthcare practitioners understand the link between AF and stroke and to assist them in assessing and managing high-risk patients. The association between a cardiac arrhythmia and a disabling cerebral event is not always understood fully. However, all healthcare professionals are in a position to identify patients with AF.


Reid F.,Raigmore Hospital
Nursing children and young people | Year: 2013

To elicit the views of children's nurses with regard to the personal, contextual and interprofessional challenges faced when delivering palliative and end of life care to children and young people in the community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven nurses who provided palliative care to one or more child or young person in the home. Data generated were analysed thematically to define topics. Four themes emerged: service delivery, nurse-family relationships, nurses' grief, funeral rites and bereavement support. Nurses experienced considerable internal and external pressures. Some are inevitable but others, such as organisation of care provision to families and nurses' personal coping, could be improved by adequately resourced workforces, integrated service structures and guidance on reflective practice. Further research is needed.


Introduction. The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 and since then it has been reported in 31 countries and territories in America. The epidemiological and clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Development. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa and Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually selflimiting and last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta and amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly and in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, and serological tests (IgM ELISA and neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue and chikungunya viruses. Conclusions. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus and its long-term consequences in adults and newborn infants is still limited. © 2016 Revista de Neurología.


Ho C.K.M.,Raigmore Hospital | Habib F.K.,University of Edinburgh
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2011

Estrogens and androgens have both been implicated as causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although epidemiological data on an association between serum androgen concentrations and BPH are inconsistent, it is generally accepted that androgens play a permissive role in BPH pathogenesis. In clinical practice, inhibitors of 5Î ±-reductase (which converts testosterone to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone) have proven effective in the management of BPH, confirming an essential role for androgens in BPH pathophysiology. To date, multiple lines of evidence support a role for estrogens in BPH pathogenesis. Studies of the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes have shed light on their differential functions in the human prostate; ERÎ ± and ERÎ 2 have proliferative and antiproliferative effects on prostate cells, respectively. Effects of estrogens on the prostate are associated with multiple mechanisms including apoptosis, aromatase expression and paracrine regulation via prostaglandin E2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators or other agents that can influence intraprostatic estrogen levels might conceivably be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of BPH. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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