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Sayana S.B.,Deemed University | Khanwelkar C.C.,Deemed University | Chavan V.R.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the antiurolithic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AQERCP) in 2% Ammonium chloride (AC) and 0.75% Ethylene glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Methods: Urolithiasis was induced in rats by supplying drinking water mixed with 2% (AC) and 0.75% (EG) for 10 days. Calculi were confirmed by the high urinary levels of calcium, uric acid and low levels of magnesium and high levels of serum creatinine and calcium. The animals were treated with 03 doses of AQERCP i.e., 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg respectively orally in different groups of rats once daily for 10 days along with 2% (AC) and 0.75% (EG) mixed drinking water. On 11th day 3 rats from each group were kept in one metabolic cage and urine (pooled) collected for 24 h was subjected for estimation of various biochemical parameters. Blood was collected on the same day and analysed for various parameters. Kidneys were observed for the histopathological changes. Results: Rats treated with 03 doses of AQERCP significantly (P≤ 0.05) reduced urinary calcium, uric acid and increased urinary magnesium levels, reduced serum calcium, creatinine and increased serum magnesium. Histopathology of kidneys in groups treated with AQERCP at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses revealed less tissue damage and the cytology of nephrotic tissue was almost similar to the control Group I rats. Conclusion: Results showed AQERCP has shown significant antiurolithic effect against chemical induced urolithiasis in rats.

Sayana S.B.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Christina,Koppal Institute of Medical science | Medabala T.,Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports | Patil P.S.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

Objective: The objective was to study the diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Cissampelos pareira (EELCP) by Lipschitz method in albino rats.Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino rats were used to study the diuretic activity of EELCP using metabolic cages. Group I serves as normal control received vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose 2% in normal saline), Group II received furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o) in the vehicle; other Groups III, IV, and V were treated with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of EELCP in vehicle. Immediately after the extract treatment, all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and placed in the metabolic cages (3/cage), specially designed to separate urine and feces, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. A total volume of urine collected was measured at the end of 5th hr. During this period, no food and water were made available to animals. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride ions in the urine were measured and estimated, respectively.Results: When compared to vehicle-treated control group, the EELCP at different dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) has significantly increased the urine volume and also enhanced the elimination of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine.Conclusions: Results showed that single dose administration of EELCP as 100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg and standard furosemide (10 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) has significantly (p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride. © 2014 Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.

Ravi Shankar G.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Shetty S.,M S Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2014

Objective: To estimate portal vein diameter (PVD) in co-relation with physical data. Background: The normal diameter of portal vein at the level of portahepatis varies from 7 to 15 mm. Various text books describe the measurement of portal vein diameter but not its correlation with the physical data. As per the data available in literature there is only one case study done correlating portal vein diameter and physical data of the individual. Hence this study has been taken up with the criteria of ultrasonic measurement of portal vein diameter and its correlation with physical data of individual like age, sex, height, weight and body surface area(BSA). Method: The study was conducted in the department of Radiodiagnosis, M.S. Ramaiah teaching hospital. 500 individuals (patients) were selected for the study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Height, weight and body surface area was measured, statistical analysis was done. Result: The portal vein diameter increases proportionately with increase in all the following parameters such as age (r=0.169, p<0.001), height (r=0.170, p<0.001), weight(r=0.217, p<0.001) and body surface area (r=0.237, p<0.001). Conclusion: The relation between portal vein diameter and physical data is significantly positive.

Mudurangaplar B.,BLDE University | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Background: Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa and Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache and myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful and long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in and around the regions of Bijapur district. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia and arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Results and Conclusion: Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) and age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Super Speciality Hospital and Raichur Institute of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to various cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis. However, the clinical cardiovascular benefits after short term supplementation have not been reported.To study the beneficial effect of Vitamin D supplementation on angina episodes in Vitamin D deficient patients with chronic stable angina on medical management.A total of 40 patients were studied with group 1 (20 patients) with low Vitamin D levels and group 2 with normal Vitamin D levels. 60000 IU of Vitamin D supplementation was given every week for 8 weeks in group 1. Frequency of anginal episodes and use of sub-lingual nitrates were compared at base-line and after 8 weeks post supplementation.Significant 20% (p <0.05) reduction in anginal episodes and 17.24% (p <0.05) reduction in use of sub-lingual nitrates was noted in group1 after Vitamin D supplementation. The benefits were independent of BP, heart rate and medications, thus, attributing to supplementation. No significant change was noted in group 2.Cardiovascular patients need to be evaluated for Vitamin D deficiency. Supplementation to correct Vitamin D levels may have additional cardiovascular benefits like reduction in angina episodes.

PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Super Speciality Hospital and Raichur Institute of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Non-invasive tests are used to diagnose and prognosticate Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients and also in pre-operative evaluation and rehabilitation. Millions of these tests are performed worldwide in these situations. However, previous studies have shown inappropriate use of these tests.The study was to evaluate the appropriate use of treadmill exercise test.The present retrospective study was done in Rajiv Gandhi Super Speciality Hospital, Raichur and Institute of Medical sciences and RKB Super Speciality Clinic, Raichur, Karnataka, India. Tread Mill Tests (TMT) which were done between November 2013 and February 2016 were included in the study. A total of 600 tests were evaluated for appropriateness. Demographic, clinical and risk factors, indications were studied.Overall 298 (49.66%) tests were found to be inappro-priate. Younger age, female sex, pre-operative evaluation, evaluation in master health check up and insurance were predictors of inappropriate use (p<0.05) in this study.The treadmill exercise testing appears to be particularly vulnerable to overuse in clinical setting due to its wide availability, affordability and awareness. The inappropriate use of the method, however, may result in additional unnecessary cost to health care system.

Bhagat V.M.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Gattani P.L.,Government Medical College
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n=107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n=112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant.

Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT) centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.

Naveen G.,Medicity | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent worldwide in adults. India alone accounts for 30% of the global tuberculosis burden. There is a need for a method of cultivation of mycobacteria that is reliable and economical and has a short turnaround time. Objective: The present study was attempted to assess the feasibility of using MB BACT and Middlebrook 7h10(MB7H10) as primary isolation media for mycobacteria. They were compared with the LJ medium, which was the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Various clinical specimens from a total of 236 clinically suspected cases of TB were studied. All the samples were decontaminated by using the modified Petroff's method. Each sample was subjected to ZN staining and it was simultaneously inoculated onto the LJ medium, the MB7H10 medium and MB BACT. The growth from the cultures were confirmed by ZN staining and they were speciated by using biochemical reactions. Results: Out of the 236 samples which were screened, 116 isolates were obtained. All the 116 were isolated from MB BACT, 82 were isolated from the LJ medium and 62 were isolated from MB7H10. 82 isolates were obtained from MB BACT and the LJ medium, 62 were obtained from MB7H10 and MB BACT, 58 were isolated from LJ and MB7H10 and 58 were isolated from LJ medium, MB7H10 and MB bact. Neither the L J medium nor the Middlebrook 7h 10 medium could isolate mycobacteria exclusively. It showed that the combination of media did not prove to be superior over the use of MB BACT alone. The average isolation time of L J, the MB7H10 medium and MB BACT was 30.81 days, 31.06 days and 18.70 days. Interpretation and Conclusion: MB BACT is a better medium as compared to the L J medium and the MB7H10 medium, both in terms of the number of isolates and the isolation rate. The MB BACT method proved to be a very speedy method and it could isolate mycobacteria 7-10 days earlier as compared to the L J medium and the Middlebrook 7 H10 medium.

Bahadur A.K.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University | Year: 2013

Background: Lack of proper knowledge of baseline titre of Widal test can lead to over diagnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanagement of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slide Widal test has replaced conventional tube Widal test in many laboratories, but there is paucity of scientific data regarding how far the results of this rapid test correlate with that of conventional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quantitative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-off value for positive Widal test in this region, and to correlate the results obtained in quantitative tube Widal test with that of rapid semiquantitative slide Widal test. Material and Methods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blood donors (AHDs) were subjected to quantitative tube and semiquantitative slide Widal test to know the titre. Results: Highest titre obtained by tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. Tube Widal titres of ≤ 1:80 for TO and TH were seen in 103(96.2%) and 97(90.6%), TO and TH titres of ≥ 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7%) and 10 (9.3%) respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in 1(0.93%) and no such high titre was reported in relation to TO. Highest titre obtained by semiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320, for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160. Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titre of ≥ 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever and for AH and BH, titres of ≥1:40 and ≥1:160 should be considered diagnostic respectively in our region. Because of high expected false positivity rate of slide Widal test even at the higher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widal test appears to have little value in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in this region. © Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University.

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