Raichur Institute of Medical science

Rāichūr, India

Raichur Institute of Medical science

Rāichūr, India
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Ponnaluri R.R.,Guntur Medical College | Kolasani B.P.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College & Hospital | Mudium R.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Background: Evidence has accumulated for the involvement of calcium ions in nociception and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels being critical for pain transduction and modulation. N-type calcium channel blockers represent a new class of analgesics that are selective for calcium channels involved in pain signal transmission. Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic was discovered to block these N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Aims and Objectives: The present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of gentamicin in thermally induced pain models of rats and mice and compare it against the standard analgesic aspirin. Materials and methods: A total of 24 rats and 24 mice were distributed into four groups of 6 each: Group A received distilled water as control, Group B received Gentamicin- low dose (80 µg/kg), Group C received Gentamicin- high dose (160 µg/kg), and Group D received standard drug Aspirin (20 mg/kg in rats and 25 mg/kg in mice); all drugs were given intraperitoneally. Analgesic activity was determined using tail flick method and hot plate method. In both the methods, the mean reaction time (MRT) in seconds at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min among the four groups were noted in both rats and mice. The percentage increase in MRT was calculated which indicates the degree of analgesia produced. Results: In the tail flick test, increase in the MRT was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in Group B, Groups C and D at all the time intervals except 0 min in rats, whereas in mice, it was highly significant (P < 0.001) in only Groups C and D. In hot plate method, in rats, the increase in MRT was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at 90 and 120 min in Group C and at 60 min in Group D, whereas it was highly significant at 90 min in Group D. In mice, increase in MRT was found to be significant at 90 min in Group B, at 60 and 120 min in Group C and at 120 min in group D whereas it was highly significant at 90 min in Group C and at 60 and 90 min in Group D. Conclusion: Gentamicin showed a comparable analgesic activity to aspirin in tail flick method but lower analgesic activity in hot plate method in both rats and mice. © 2016 Raghunatha Rao Ponnaluri et al.

Kulkarni S.R.,BLDE University | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Sailesh K.S.,Little Flower Institute of Medical science and Research
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2017

Introduction: Clinical management of the urinary tract infections (UTI) is influenced by the antimicrobial vulnerability patterns. Objective: The study aimed to analyse the resistance pattern of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing UTI in patients over a period of 4 years from 2012 to 2015. Materials and Methods: 1000 samples from patients suspected of having urinary tract infections were collected and processed for culture and antimicrobial drug susceptibility as per the routine microbiological techniques. Results: Of the total 1000 samples, 395 cases were culture-positive for E. coli. These isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion method. Of the total 395 E. coli isolates, 170 (43%) were multi drug resistant (MDR). The isolates showed high level of resistance to Ampicillin (82.53%), Cefuroxime (72.41%), Amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (71.90%), Ceftriaxone (66.58%), Ciprofloxacin (65.82%) and Cefepime (57.47%). The isolates were sensitive to Imipenem (96.71%), Nitrfurantion (92.41%), Amikacin (90.89%), Chloramphenicol (85.82%), Piperacillin-tazobactum (80.76%), Gentamicin (59.24%), Azetreonam (54.43%) and Norfloxacin (53.67%). Conclusion: We conclude that a significant number of the urinary tract infections in our study subjects were caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli. The sensitivity pattern showed a continued decline from 2012 to 2015, with Imipenem being currently the most effective antibiotic. © 2017 Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine.

Namita,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Ranjan D.P.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a non-communicable disease of major public health problem, and pre-HTN in adolescents and young adults is an important risk factor for developing HTN in the future. By detecting pre-HTN earlier, some remedial measures may be adopted to prevent HTN. Aims and Objectives: To study normal blood pressure (BP), HTN, and pre-HTN in medical students studying at Government Medical College. Materials and Methods: A total of 222 medical students from three different professionals (MBBS) of Government Medical College were taken, interviewed with a predesigned questionnaire, and physical examination including BP measurement conducted. Results: About 164 students (73.9%) had normal BP and 58 students (26.1%) were pre-hypertensive, there was no case of HTN. Out of 117 male students, 39 (33.3%) and out of 105 female students, 19 (18.1%) were pre-hypertensives. No one had a current smoking habit of any type. There was no smokeless tobacco habit also, and one student had a past history of smoking. Only one had current alcohol habit. Passive tobacco exposure risk was present in 7 students. Conclusion: Mean systolic BP was 115.37 ± 8.21 and mean diastolic BP was 75.70 ± 7.00. If smoking or smokeless tobacco habit is less or nil, there is less chance of developing HTN or pre-HTN. © 2017 Namita and Din Prakash Ranjan.

Namita,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Ranjan D.P.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Background: Pre-hypertension (HTN) in adolescents and young adults is an important risk factor for developing HTN in future. Increased body mass index (BMI) and physical inactivity may have an adverse effect on blood pressure (BP) in adults which can lead to cardiovascular complications later in life. This study was conducted to assess BP in relation with different obesity indicators. Aims and Objectives: To study BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic BP-to-height ratio (SBPHR), diastolic BP-to-height ratio (DBPHR), and BP in medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 medical students from 3 batches of MBBS. All the students were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire; BP, weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured. Results: In 73.9% of the subjects BP was normal, 26.1% were pre-hypertensive, and there was no case of HTN. Mean systolic BP was 115.37 ± 8.21 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP was 75.70 ± 7.00 mmHg. Mean BMI was 21.72 ±3.64 kg/m2. 50% of the subjects were in the category of 0.85-1 WHR obese. For SBPHR (0.71 in male and 0.75 in female), sensitivity was 64.1%/68.4% and specificity was 80.8%/70.9%. And for DBPHR (0.46 in male and 0.49 in female), sensitivity was 64.1%/89.5% and specificity was 61.5%/67.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Out of 222 medical students, 2.7% were in obese Class I and 17.1% were in preobese/overweight category; 50% were in 0.85-1 WHR obese category, which indicates an alarming sign. We can propose SBPHR/DBPHR cutoff 0.71/0.46 in male and 0.75/0.49 in female. © 2017 Namita and Din Prakash Ranjan.

Mudurangaplar B.,BLDE University | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Background: Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa and Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache and myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful and long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in and around the regions of Bijapur district. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia and arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Results and Conclusion: Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) and age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Rajiv Gandhi Super Speciality Hospital and Raichur Institute of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to various cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis. However, the clinical cardiovascular benefits after short term supplementation have not been reported.To study the beneficial effect of Vitamin D supplementation on angina episodes in Vitamin D deficient patients with chronic stable angina on medical management.A total of 40 patients were studied with group 1 (20 patients) with low Vitamin D levels and group 2 with normal Vitamin D levels. 60000 IU of Vitamin D supplementation was given every week for 8 weeks in group 1. Frequency of anginal episodes and use of sub-lingual nitrates were compared at base-line and after 8 weeks post supplementation.Significant 20% (p <0.05) reduction in anginal episodes and 17.24% (p <0.05) reduction in use of sub-lingual nitrates was noted in group1 after Vitamin D supplementation. The benefits were independent of BP, heart rate and medications, thus, attributing to supplementation. No significant change was noted in group 2.Cardiovascular patients need to be evaluated for Vitamin D deficiency. Supplementation to correct Vitamin D levels may have additional cardiovascular benefits like reduction in angina episodes.

Bhagat V.M.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Gattani P.L.,Government Medical College
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n=107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n=112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant.

Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT) centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.

Naveen G.,Medicity | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent worldwide in adults. India alone accounts for 30% of the global tuberculosis burden. There is a need for a method of cultivation of mycobacteria that is reliable and economical and has a short turnaround time. Objective: The present study was attempted to assess the feasibility of using MB BACT and Middlebrook 7h10(MB7H10) as primary isolation media for mycobacteria. They were compared with the LJ medium, which was the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Various clinical specimens from a total of 236 clinically suspected cases of TB were studied. All the samples were decontaminated by using the modified Petroff's method. Each sample was subjected to ZN staining and it was simultaneously inoculated onto the LJ medium, the MB7H10 medium and MB BACT. The growth from the cultures were confirmed by ZN staining and they were speciated by using biochemical reactions. Results: Out of the 236 samples which were screened, 116 isolates were obtained. All the 116 were isolated from MB BACT, 82 were isolated from the LJ medium and 62 were isolated from MB7H10. 82 isolates were obtained from MB BACT and the LJ medium, 62 were obtained from MB7H10 and MB BACT, 58 were isolated from LJ and MB7H10 and 58 were isolated from LJ medium, MB7H10 and MB bact. Neither the L J medium nor the Middlebrook 7h 10 medium could isolate mycobacteria exclusively. It showed that the combination of media did not prove to be superior over the use of MB BACT alone. The average isolation time of L J, the MB7H10 medium and MB BACT was 30.81 days, 31.06 days and 18.70 days. Interpretation and Conclusion: MB BACT is a better medium as compared to the L J medium and the MB7H10 medium, both in terms of the number of isolates and the isolation rate. The MB BACT method proved to be a very speedy method and it could isolate mycobacteria 7-10 days earlier as compared to the L J medium and the Middlebrook 7 H10 medium.

Bahadur A.K.,Raichur Institute of Medical science | Peerapur B.V.,Raichur Institute of Medical science
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University | Year: 2013

Background: Lack of proper knowledge of baseline titre of Widal test can lead to over diagnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanagement of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slide Widal test has replaced conventional tube Widal test in many laboratories, but there is paucity of scientific data regarding how far the results of this rapid test correlate with that of conventional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quantitative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-off value for positive Widal test in this region, and to correlate the results obtained in quantitative tube Widal test with that of rapid semiquantitative slide Widal test. Material and Methods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blood donors (AHDs) were subjected to quantitative tube and semiquantitative slide Widal test to know the titre. Results: Highest titre obtained by tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. Tube Widal titres of ≤ 1:80 for TO and TH were seen in 103(96.2%) and 97(90.6%), TO and TH titres of ≥ 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7%) and 10 (9.3%) respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in 1(0.93%) and no such high titre was reported in relation to TO. Highest titre obtained by semiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320, for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160. Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titre of ≥ 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever and for AH and BH, titres of ≥1:40 and ≥1:160 should be considered diagnostic respectively in our region. Because of high expected false positivity rate of slide Widal test even at the higher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widal test appears to have little value in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in this region. © Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University.

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