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Winston-Salem, NC, United States

Marano K.M.,RAI Services Company | Kathman S.J.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Jones B.A.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Nordskog B.K.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | And 2 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2015

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE), including hematologic biomarkers, serum lipid-related biomarkers, other serum BoBE, and one physiological biomarker, were evaluated in adult cigarette smokers (SMK), smokeless tobacco consumers (STC), and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Data from adult males and females in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a single site, cross-sectional study of healthy US males were analyzed and compared. Within normal clinical reference ranges, statistically significant differences were observed consistently for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, hemoglobin, white blood cells, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in comparisons between SMK and NTC; for CRP, white blood cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes in comparisons between SMK and STC; and for folate in comparisons with STC and NTC. Results provide evidence for differences in CVD BoBE associated with the use of different tobacco products, and provide evidence of a risk continuum among tobacco products and support for the concept of tobacco harm reduction. © RAI Services Company.


Campbell L.R.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Brown B.G.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Jones B.A.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Marano K.M.,RAI Services Company | Borgerding M.F.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to evaluate biomarkers of biological effect and physiological assessments related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adult male cigarette smokers (SMK), moist snuff consumers (MSC) and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Additionally, biomarkers of tobacco and tobacco smoke exposure (BoE) were measured in spot urines and are reported here. Except for the BoE to nicotine and NNK, BoE were generally greater in SMK compared with MSC, and BoE were generally not different in comparisons of MSC and NTC. Results demonstrated that MSC had lower systemic exposures to many harmful and potentially harmful constituents than SMK, which is consistent with epidemiological data that indicate a differential in CVD risk between these groups. © R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.


Nordskog B.K.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Brown B.G.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Marano K.M.,RAI Services Company | Campell L.R.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | And 2 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2015

An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. © R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.


Ogden M.W.,RAI Services Company | Marano K.M.,RAI Services Company | Jones B.A.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Stiles M.F.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Biomarkers | Year: 2015

A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Ogden M.W.,RAI Services Company | Marano K.M.,RAI Services Company | Jones B.A.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Morgan W.T.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company | Stiles M.F.,R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Biomarkers | Year: 2015

A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

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