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Buerstmayr M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Matiasch L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Mascher F.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW | Vida G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. Abstract The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust. © 2014 The Author(s).


Ober E.S.,UK National Institute of Agricultural Botany | Werner P.,KWS UK | Flatman E.,Limagrain | Angus W.J.,Angus Wheat Consultants Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2014

The ability of roots to extract soil moisture is critical for maintaining yields during drought. However, the extent of genotypic variation for rooting depth and drought tolerance in Northern European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm is not known. The objectives of this study were to measure genotypic differences in root activity, test relationships between water use and yield, examine trade-offs between yield potential and investment of biomass in deep roots, and identify genotypes that contrast in deep root activity. A diverse set of 21 wheat genotypes was evaluated under irrigated and managed drought conditions in the field. Root activity was inferred from patterns of water extraction from the soil profile. Genotypes were equally capable of exploiting soil moisture in the upper layers, but there were significant genotypic differences in rates of water uptake after anthesis in deeper soil layers. For example, across the three years of the study, the variety Xi19 showed consistently deeper root activity than the variety Spark; Xi19 also showed greater drought tolerance than Spark. There were positive correlations between water extraction from depth and droughted yields and drought tolerance, but correlations between deep water use and yield potential were not significant or only weakly negative. With appropriate screening tools, selection for genotypes that can better mine deep soil water should improve yield stability in variable rainfall environments. © CSIRO 2014.


Shorinola O.,John Innes Center | Bird N.,John Innes Center | Bird N.,KWS UK Ltd | Simmonds J.,John Innes Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Ramirez-Gonzalez R.H.,The Genome Analysis Center | Segovia V.,John Innes Center | Segovia V.,Regional Cereal Rust Research Center | Bird N.,John Innes Center | And 8 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2015

The identification of genetic markers linked to genes of agronomic importance is a major aim of crop research and breeding programmes. Here, we identify markers for Yr15, a major disease resistance gene for wheat yellow rust, using a segregating F2 population. After phenotyping, we implemented RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of bulked pools to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with Yr15. Over 27 000 genes with SNPs were identified between the parents, and then classified based on the results from the sequenced bulks. We calculated the bulk frequency ratio (BFR) of SNPs between resistant and susceptible bulks, selecting those showing sixfold enrichment/depletion in the corresponding bulks (BFR > 6). Using additional filtering criteria, we reduced the number of genes with a putative SNP to 175. The 35 SNPs with the highest BFR values were converted into genome-specific KASP assays using an automated bioinformatics pipeline (PolyMarker) which circumvents the limitations associated with the polyploid wheat genome. Twenty-eight assays were polymorphic of which 22 (63%) mapped in the same linkage group as Yr15. Using these markers, we mapped Yr15 to a 0.77-cM interval. The three most closely linked SNPs were tested across varieties and breeding lines representing UK elite germplasm. Two flanking markers were diagnostic in over 99% of lines tested, thus providing a reliable haplotype for marker-assisted selection in these breeding programmes. Our results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can be applied in polyploid F2 populations to generate high-resolution genetic maps across target intervals. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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