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Kverndokk S.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research | Lindholt L.,Statistics Norway
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

How to stabilize the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere depends crucially on baseline assumptions of future economic growth, energy demand and supply technologies, etc. In this paper we investigate how different assumptions about the future affect the necessary global policy measures to reach specific concentration targets for CO2. This is done by constructing two contrasting baseline scenarios within an intertemporal model of fossil fuel markets. We find that the appropriate CO2 emission and concentration paths for a given concentration target are very dependent on the baseline. Moreover, the impact on oil wealth for OPEC and other oil producers of stabilizing CO2 concentrations depends significantly both on the baseline and on whether the target is reached through carbon taxes or autonomous technological change in carbon-free energy sources. Carbon leakage through changes in international fossil fuel prices is found to be negligible and possibly negative. © 2000, Springer Japan. Source


Rogeberg O.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research
NAD Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs | Year: 2015

Drug policies affect a large set of outcomes and may reflect the concerns of several policy stakeholder groups. Researchers analysing policies typically employ a public health approach, extended to reflect concerns beyond population health and longevity. I argue that the resulting approach, as currently practised, fails to capture several concerns seen as important by recent drug policy reform movements, that is, the full harms of illegal markets, the subjectively valued consumption of intoxicants, the dysfunctionality of current policy processes in the drug field and the value of the knowledge gained from policy experiments. I illustrate this by referring to the book Drug policy and the public good, a public health-based review of research evidence and its relevance for drug policy written by leading international researchers in the field. © 2015 Ole Rogeberg. Source


Karp L.,University of California at Berkeley | Karp L.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research | Simon L.,University of California at Berkeley
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2013

We examine the size of stable coalitions in a participation game that has been used to model international environmental agreements, cartel formation, R&D spillovers, and monetary policy. The literature to date has relied on parametric examples; based on these examples, a consensus has emerged that in this kind of game, the equilibrium coalition size is small, except possibly when the potential benefits of cooperation are also small. In this paper, we develop a non-parametric approach to the problem, and demonstrate that the conventional wisdom is not robust. In a general setting, we identify conditions under which the equilibrium coalition size can be large even when potential gains are large. Contrary to previously examined leading special cases, we show that reductions in marginal abatement costs in an international environmental game can increase equilibrium membership, and we provide a measure of the smallest reduction in costs needed to support a coalition of arbitrary size. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source


Henden E.,Oslo University College | Melberg H.O.,University of Oslo | Rogeberg O.J.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. © 2013 Henden, Melberg and Røgeberg. Source


Naevdal E.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

Epidemic diseases afflict all countries, and all epidemics are costly to society. The present paper examines optimal vaccination trajectories before and after an outbreak of a special class of epidemics where the disease normally eradicates itself. The focus is on epidemics where mortality may be ignored, influenza being the prime example. One important insight is that there may be increasing returns to scale in vaccination. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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