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Peraman R.,Gulf Medical University | Varma R.V.,Andhra University | Reddy Y.P.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

Occurrence of antibacterial and antimycobacterial resistance stimulated a thrust to discover new drugs for infectious diseases. Herein we report the work on re-engineering nalidixic acid's chemical scaffold for newer leads. Stepwise clubbing of quinoxaline, 1,2,4-triazole/1,3,4-oxadiazole with nalidixic acid yielded better compounds. Compounds were screened against ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv species. Results were obtained as minimum inhibitory concentration, it was evident that molecule with quinoxaline linked azide as side chain served as antitubercular lead (<6.25. μg/ml) whilst molecule with oxadiazole or triazole linked quinoxaline side chain served as anti-bacterial lead. Few compounds were significantly active against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris with MIC less than 0.06. μg/ml and relatively potent than ciprofloxacin. No true compound was potentially active against Salmonella species as compared to amoxicillin. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Peraman R.,Gulf Medical University | Peraman R.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | Bhadraya K.,Swaroop Technology Consultancy | Padmanabha Reddy Y.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT). © 2015 Ramalingam Peraman et al. Source


Tanwar O.,Jamia Hamdard University | Deora G.S.,University of Hyderabad | Deora G.S.,University of Queensland | Janardhan S.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2014

The present study demonstrates and validates the discovery of two novel hydrazine derivatives as selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. Virtual screening (VS) of publicly available databases was performed using virtual screening workflow (VSW) of Schrödinger software against DPP-IV and the most promising hits were selected. Selectivity was further assessed by docking the hits against homology modeled structures of DPP8 and DPP9. Two novel hydrazine derivatives were selected for further studies based on their selectivity threshold. To assess their correct binding modes and stability of their complexes with enzyme, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were performed against the DPP-IV protein and the results revealed that they had a better binding affinity towards DPP-IVas compared to DPP 8 and DPP 9. The binding poses were further validated by docking these ligands with different softwares (Glide and Gold). The proposed binding modes of hydrazines were found to be similar to sitagliptine and alogliptine. Thus, the study reveals the potential of hydrazine derivatives as highly selective DPP-IV inhibitors. © Springer-Verlag 2014. Source


Vigneshwaran E.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | Padmanabha Reddy Y.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | Devanna N.,Andhra University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Drug information services are considered as a major resource to provide patient counseling in clinical basis and to provide pharmaceutical care to improve rational use of medicines. In India, the drug information services are usually provided by the pharmacists those who are servicing in academic institutions and hospitals. Quality assurance is an important process required for continuous development and improvement. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate drug information services provided by clinical pharmacist of pharmacy practice department to HIV/AIDS care and support center in a resource limited settings. Drug information Queries received by the center was answered by clinical pharmacist of pharmacy practice department after analyzing by using modified systematic approach for their completeness, straight forwardness, reliability of answers and the reliability of references used to answer the queries from both the providers and receivers perspective. Over all it was observed that our drug information services are useful for health care professional in their clinical practice. As a part of pharmaceutical care the drug information service, provided by our pharmacy practice department could serve the need of health care professionals for better patient care were acceptable. Source


Rao S.G.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | Thomas D.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research RIPER | Zachariah S.,Drug Information Pharmacist | Kannan M.S.,RDT Hospital | Alvarez-Uria G.,RDT Hospital
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objective: Fixed drug combinations are a major marketing strategy in India but it can compromise the rational use of medicines. In this study we compared the fixed drug combinations and dosage forms in the hospital pharmacy before and after introducing the essential drug list. We also compared the Hospital Essential Drug List (HEDL) 2011 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Drug List (EDL) 2011 and the National Essential Drug List of India (NEDL) 2011. Methods: The study was done in a secondary level care charity hospital at Anantapur, AP with a bed size of 315 and an average OP per day of 1200-1700 visits. We compared the three essential drug lists (HEDL, WHOEDL and NEDL) and the hospital drug list before introducing EDL. Drugs which were present in NEDL and not present in the HEDL were also screened. Microsoft excel was used to tabulate the results and for graphs. Results: The number of medicines used in the hospital before and after the introduction of the HEDL was 1627 and 424 respectively. On comparison, WHOEDL 2011 have 350 and NEDL of India have 348 medicines. While preparing the HEDL, 46 double drug combinations decreased to 15 and 9 triple drug combinations decreased to 1. In the case of injections, 20 double drug combinations decreased to 6 and 1 triple drug combination increased to 2. The number of tablets, capsules, injections, syrups, powders and inhalers was reduced to almost half. The great reductions were in 51 ointments to 9, 69 drops to 5, 11 paste to 0, 21 solutions to 3 and 14 creams to 1. The dosage forms removed included elixirs, insulin pens, gums, paste, paints, gargles and mouthwashes. Conclusions: There was drastic reduction in the number of medicines and dosage forms when the HEDL was implemented. Many of the fixed drug combinations were also removed for improving the rational use of medicines. The WHO essential drug list 2011, national essential drug list of India 2011 and the hospital essential drug list 2011 were comparable with few exceptions. Source

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