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Mohandoss A.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Thavarajah R.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: A small subset of Indian people living/diagnosed with cancer commits suicide. The prevalence and changing trends in such cancer-related suicides are not much reported in literature. An attempt is made to address this subset of suicides during 2001-2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the Indian National Crime Bureau Record, cancer registry publication in open domain, and published literature. Trends in the number of suicides associated with state, age groups, genders, and years were the only available parameters. Using these data, descriptive statistics of the rate of suicides, linear trend with age groups, gender, and geographical divisions are presented. RESULTS: During the study period of 14 years, 1,721,946 suicides with an average of 122,996 suicides per year were observed. One in five suicides was related to illness. In total, a sum of 10,421 cancer-related suicides were noted accounting a mean of 744 suicides per year. Males were commonly involved than females. The commonly involved age group was 45-59 years. Southern parts of India had more instances of cancer-related suicides. Among Indian states, West Bengal reported the highest of such instances. DISCUSSION: Suicide trends among Indians living with cancer during 2001-2014 are presented. The possible causes behind this phenomenon and implications are presented. The effect of changes in the trends in terms of geographical distribution, age group distribution, and gender dynamics is presented and discussed in this context. CONCLUSION: Suicide among PLWC is a multi-dimensional, complex phenomenon, orchestrated by several factors, including mental health. The nascent field of psycho-oncology in India needs to explore this through large scale validated studies.

Patton L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ramirez-Amador V.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Anaya-Saavedra G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Nittayananta W.,Prince of Songkla University | And 2 more authors.
Oral Diseases | Year: 2013

Human immunodeficiency virus-related oral lesions (HIV-OLs), such as oral candidiasis (OC) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), have been recognized as indicators of immune suppression since the beginning of the global HIV epidemic. The diagnosis and management of HIV disease and spectrum of opportunistic infection has changed over the past 30 years as our understanding of the infection has evolved. We investigated the following controversial topics: (i) Are oral manifestations of HIV still relevant after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)? (ii) Can we nowadays still diagnose HIV infection through oral lesions? (iii) Is the actual classification of oral manifestations of HIV adequate or does it need to be reviewed and updated? (iv) Is there any novelty in the treatment of oral manifestations of HIV infection? Results from extensive literature review suggested the following: (i) While HAART has resulted in significant reductions in HIV-OLs, many are still seen in patients with HIV infection, with OC remaining the most common lesion. While the relationship between oral warts and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is less clear, the malignant potential of oral human papillomavirus infection is gaining increasing attention. (ii) Effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV from a fatal illness to a chronic manageable condition and as a result expanded screening policies for HIV are being advocated both in developed and in developing countries. Affordable, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic techniques have been recently introduced likely restricting the importance of HIV-OLs in diagnosis. (iii) The 1993 EC-Clearinghouse classification of HIV-OLs is still globally used despite controversy on the relevance of periodontal diseases today. HIV-OL case definitions were updated in 2009 to facilitate the accuracy of HIV-OL diagnoses by non-dental healthcare workers in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. (iv) Research over the last 6 years on novel modalities for the treatment of HIV-OLs has been reported for OC and OHL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Sankar D.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital | Krishnan R.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital | Veerabahu M.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital | Vikraman B.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012

The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double blind study was to assess the effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss, quality of surgical field and duration of surgery in adolescent orthognathic surgery patients. 50 consecutive patients, scheduled for orthognathic surgery were included. The study group (n = 25) received tranexamic acid 10 mg/kg as a bolus preoperatively followed by 1 mg/kg as a maintenance dose intra operatively; the control group (n = 25) received placebo (normal saline). All patients received moderate hypotensive anaesthesia with nitroglycerin and had surgery according to a standard protocol. Intra operative blood loss, duration of surgery, quality of surgical field, blood transfusion and complications, if any, were recorded. The mean total blood loss was 166.1 ± 65.49 ml in the study group and 256.4 ± 77.80 ml in the control group. The results showed statistically significant reduction in blood loss (p < 0.001) and improved quality of surgical field (p < 0.001) in the study group. There was no significant difference in duration of surgery and transfusion requirements between the two groups. In conclusion, preoperative and intra operative administration of the antifibrinolytic agent, tranexamic acid, is effective in controlling blood loss and improving the quality of the surgical field. © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Ranganathan K.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital | Sivasankar V.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs are a highly conserved group of small, non-coding RNA molecules, which are 19-25 nucleotides in size. Previously thought to be evolutionary debris with no evident function, these small RNAs have been found to control gene expression primarily by silencing the gene. MicroRNAs are critical to cell physiology and development. They are also implicated in pathological processes such as autoimmune diseases, viral infections and carcinogenesis.

Ranganathan K.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital | Kavitha R.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011

Background: Premalignant/potentially malignant-oral lesions and conditions such as oral submucous fibrosis are known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aim: To evaluate the expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in 50 cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and ten each of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Results: The labeling indices (LI) of OSF and OSCC were comparable for p53 and Ki67.The p53 LI ranged from 7.9 to 71.9 in OSF and 65.2 to 85.9 in OSCC, and for Ki67 it ranged from 4.39 to 43.23, 18.35 to 42.33, respectively. Conclusion: The p53, Ki67, and bax profiles of OSF and OSCC were altered compared to the normal and these markers could be used as surrogate markers of malignant transformation in OSF.

George A.M.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Orthodontics : the art and practice of dentofacial enhancement | Year: 2013

The application of a combined surgical-orthodontic procedure for the treatment of major facial deformities (eg, asymmetries) and associated malocclusions has become an increasingly prevalent treatment modality over the past few decades. Development of sound conjoint treatment principles made possible the correction of skeletal and dental dysplasias that were unyielding to either surgical or orthodontic treatment alone. The presence and severity of dentofacial asymmetries has been the subject of many commentaries and investigations. Treatment of facial asymmetry has always been a challenge with respect to the cause and the rationale behind the corrective procedures adopted. This case report describes a 23-year-old male patient whose chief complaint was attributed solely to the clinically discernible facial asymmetry. A combined orthodontic and surgical approach was done to correct both the dental and skeletal asymmetry. The reasons for selecting this treatment protocol and the 5-year postretention stability of the final results obtained are highlighted in this report.

Ravindranath S.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Orthodontics : the art and practice of dentofacial enhancement | Year: 2011

Establishing common objectives and expectations concerning the outcome of proposed surgical orthodontic therapy is a crucial part of the treatment planning process, which has been greatly simplified by imaging software. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of two surgical imaging programs--Dolphin Imaging 10 and Vistadent OC--in simulating the actual outcome of mandibular advancement surgery by using a visual analog scale (VAS) judged by a panel of orthodontists, oral surgeons, and laypersons. The predictions were also analyzed with soft tissue cephalometric evaluation. The results of the study showed that in predicting the surgical outcome evaluated by the VAS, both programs received a mean rating of fair. One was marginally superior for the overall assessment among all three panelist groups. Region-wise, rating indicated the lower lip region to be the least accurate, and the submental region received the highest scores. The soft tissue cephalometric parameters showed minimal differences except for the lower lip parameters. Thus, Dolphin Imaging 10 and Vistadent OC are reliable in predicting mandibular advancement surgical outcomes with inaccuracies chiefly in the lower lip region.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence, the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of chewable smokeless tobacco consumption among males in India. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, nationally representative population-based household survey. SUBJECTS: 74,369 males aged 15-54 years who were sampled in the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from male members in households selected for the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of various smokeless tobacco use currently was used as outcome measures. Simple and two-way cross tabulations and univariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the study population (15 years or older) used chewable smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes, and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed variation with types. The prevalence of chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with an individual's sociocultural characteristics. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve the health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most probably result in doubling the burden of diseases-both communicable and noncommunicable-among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed.

Rooban T.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Indian journal of cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a health hazard and its use is attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To identify the exposure of different mass media among a representative cohort population in the Indian subcontinent and compare the reach of the different mass media among tobacco users and nonusers using the "reach of HIV information" as a model. DESIGN: Secondary Data Analysis of Indian National Family Health Survey-3. PREDICTOR VARIABLES: Any tobacco use, gender, source of HIV information. OUTCOME VARIABLES: Use of mass media. RESULTS: Of the study group, 27% of males and 54.4% of females never read newspaper or magazine; 29.3% of males and 52.6% of females never heard radio; 12.4% of males and 25% of females never see television; and 79.3% of males and 93.46% of females did not see a movie at least once a month. The most common source of information of HIV was television among males (71.8%) and females (81%), whereas the least common source was leaders among males (0.8%) and females (0.2%). DISCUSSION: Television is the single largest media used by both genders and was a major source of HIV information dissemination. A well-designed tobacco control program similar to HIV awareness program will help to curb tobacco use. CONCLUSION: The reach of different media among Indian tobacco users is presented and HIV model of information dissemination may prove to be effective in tobacco control.

Vijayakumar A.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
World journal of orthodontics | Year: 2010

To evaluate the effects of three adhesion boosters--All-Bond 2, Enhance LC, and Ortho Solo--on the shear bond strength of new and rebonded (previously debonded) brackets. One hundred new and 100 sandblasted debonded brackets were bonded to 200 extracted human premolars and divided into eight groups. The new brackets/Ortho Solo group yielded the highest bond strength, followed by the new brackets/All-Bond 2 and the new brackets/Enhance LC groups. During rebonding, Ortho Solo improved the bond strength significantly; however, All-Bond 2 and Enhance LC did not. (1) Bond strength is significantly improved when new brackets are bonded with an adhesion booster; (2) without any adhesion booster, sandblasted rebonded brackets yield a significantly lower bond strength than new brackets; (3) Enhance LC failed to improve the bond strength of rebonded brackets; (4) Ortho Solo increased the bond strength of rebonded brackets significantly; and (5) brackets rebonded with Ortho Solo yielded comparable bond strength as new brackets without any adhesion booster. © 2010 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc.

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