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George A.M.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Orthodontics : the art and practice of dentofacial enhancement

The application of a combined surgical-orthodontic procedure for the treatment of major facial deformities (eg, asymmetries) and associated malocclusions has become an increasingly prevalent treatment modality over the past few decades. Development of sound conjoint treatment principles made possible the correction of skeletal and dental dysplasias that were unyielding to either surgical or orthodontic treatment alone. The presence and severity of dentofacial asymmetries has been the subject of many commentaries and investigations. Treatment of facial asymmetry has always been a challenge with respect to the cause and the rationale behind the corrective procedures adopted. This case report describes a 23-year-old male patient whose chief complaint was attributed solely to the clinically discernible facial asymmetry. A combined orthodontic and surgical approach was done to correct both the dental and skeletal asymmetry. The reasons for selecting this treatment protocol and the 5-year postretention stability of the final results obtained are highlighted in this report. Source

Ravindranath S.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Orthodontics : the art and practice of dentofacial enhancement

Establishing common objectives and expectations concerning the outcome of proposed surgical orthodontic therapy is a crucial part of the treatment planning process, which has been greatly simplified by imaging software. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of two surgical imaging programs--Dolphin Imaging 10 and Vistadent OC--in simulating the actual outcome of mandibular advancement surgery by using a visual analog scale (VAS) judged by a panel of orthodontists, oral surgeons, and laypersons. The predictions were also analyzed with soft tissue cephalometric evaluation. The results of the study showed that in predicting the surgical outcome evaluated by the VAS, both programs received a mean rating of fair. One was marginally superior for the overall assessment among all three panelist groups. Region-wise, rating indicated the lower lip region to be the least accurate, and the submental region received the highest scores. The soft tissue cephalometric parameters showed minimal differences except for the lower lip parameters. Thus, Dolphin Imaging 10 and Vistadent OC are reliable in predicting mandibular advancement surgical outcomes with inaccuracies chiefly in the lower lip region. Source

Patton L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ramirez-Amador V.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Anaya-Saavedra G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Nittayananta W.,Prince of Songkla University | And 2 more authors.
Oral Diseases

Human immunodeficiency virus-related oral lesions (HIV-OLs), such as oral candidiasis (OC) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), have been recognized as indicators of immune suppression since the beginning of the global HIV epidemic. The diagnosis and management of HIV disease and spectrum of opportunistic infection has changed over the past 30 years as our understanding of the infection has evolved. We investigated the following controversial topics: (i) Are oral manifestations of HIV still relevant after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)? (ii) Can we nowadays still diagnose HIV infection through oral lesions? (iii) Is the actual classification of oral manifestations of HIV adequate or does it need to be reviewed and updated? (iv) Is there any novelty in the treatment of oral manifestations of HIV infection? Results from extensive literature review suggested the following: (i) While HAART has resulted in significant reductions in HIV-OLs, many are still seen in patients with HIV infection, with OC remaining the most common lesion. While the relationship between oral warts and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is less clear, the malignant potential of oral human papillomavirus infection is gaining increasing attention. (ii) Effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV from a fatal illness to a chronic manageable condition and as a result expanded screening policies for HIV are being advocated both in developed and in developing countries. Affordable, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic techniques have been recently introduced likely restricting the importance of HIV-OLs in diagnosis. (iii) The 1993 EC-Clearinghouse classification of HIV-OLs is still globally used despite controversy on the relevance of periodontal diseases today. HIV-OL case definitions were updated in 2009 to facilitate the accuracy of HIV-OL diagnoses by non-dental healthcare workers in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. (iv) Research over the last 6 years on novel modalities for the treatment of HIV-OLs has been reported for OC and OHL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Vijayakumar A.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
World journal of orthodontics

To evaluate the effects of three adhesion boosters--All-Bond 2, Enhance LC, and Ortho Solo--on the shear bond strength of new and rebonded (previously debonded) brackets. One hundred new and 100 sandblasted debonded brackets were bonded to 200 extracted human premolars and divided into eight groups. The new brackets/Ortho Solo group yielded the highest bond strength, followed by the new brackets/All-Bond 2 and the new brackets/Enhance LC groups. During rebonding, Ortho Solo improved the bond strength significantly; however, All-Bond 2 and Enhance LC did not. (1) Bond strength is significantly improved when new brackets are bonded with an adhesion booster; (2) without any adhesion booster, sandblasted rebonded brackets yield a significantly lower bond strength than new brackets; (3) Enhance LC failed to improve the bond strength of rebonded brackets; (4) Ortho Solo increased the bond strength of rebonded brackets significantly; and (5) brackets rebonded with Ortho Solo yielded comparable bond strength as new brackets without any adhesion booster. © 2010 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. Source

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence, the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of chewable smokeless tobacco consumption among males in India. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, nationally representative population-based household survey. SUBJECTS: 74,369 males aged 15-54 years who were sampled in the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from male members in households selected for the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of various smokeless tobacco use currently was used as outcome measures. Simple and two-way cross tabulations and univariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the study population (15 years or older) used chewable smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes, and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed variation with types. The prevalence of chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with an individual's sociocultural characteristics. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve the health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most probably result in doubling the burden of diseases-both communicable and noncommunicable-among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. Source

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