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Guatemala City, Guatemala

Universidad Rafael Landívar is a private, Jesuit university in Guatemala. The main campus is in Zone 16 of Guatemala City and is known as Vista Hermosa III. There are satellite campuses in Quetzaltenango, Huehuetenango, Cobán, Zacapa and other parts of the country.Many recent Guatemalan presidents have studied there, including Ramiro de León Carpio, Álvaro Arzú, and Óscar Berger.The university is organized around the following schools: Architecture and Design Agricultural and Environmental science Health science Economics and Business Law and Social science Political science Humanities Engineering Theology Wikipedia.


Cerda-Kohler H.,Major University | Pullin Y.,Rafael Landivar University | Cancino-Lopez J.,Major University
Apunts Medicina de l'Esport | Year: 2015

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determinate the changes in the Autonomic Balance, Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate after continuous versus intermittent exercise protocols. Methods: Seven active and healthy male (33 ± 5.1 years) participated in the study. Each subject performed two exercise protocols: (i) a continuous exercise at 110% of the lactate threshold (CONT). The CONT protocol consisted in continuous running, and the distance covered was the same in meters as it was in the intermittent session, and (ii) an intermittent exercise at 100% of the Peak Treadmill Velocity (INTT). The protocol consisted of 30. min of 15. s running, interspersed with 15. s of passive rest. Autonomic balance was assessed through the LF/HF ratio, before beginning the exercises, immediately finishing the exercises and 24. h post-exercise; RPE was evaluated every 5. min in each exercise protocol; and blood lactate was measured immediately after both protocols. Alpha level was set at P ≤ .05. Results: Autonomic balance did not show significant differences between protocols ( P= 60). RPE during INTT exercise was significantly higher than CONT exercise (P = .01). Blood lactate levels after exercise did not show significant differences (P = .68). Heart rate variability parameters in the time domain (mean RR and pNN50) show no statistical differences between both protocols pre and 24 h post exercise (P = .24 and P = .61, respectively). Conclusions: The data suggest that intermittent exercise is perceived more intense than continuous, although both protocols showed similar internal loads in autonomic balance and blood lactate levels. © 2014 Consell Català de l'Esport. Generalitat de Catalunya. Source


Ovalle Rodas C.,University of Lille Nord de France | Ovalle Rodas C.,Lille Laboratory of Mechanics | Ovalle Rodas C.,Rafael Landivar University | Zairi F.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2014

A thermo-visco-hyperelastic constitutive model, in accordance with the second thermodynamics principle, is formulated to describe the self-heating evolution in elastomeric materials under cyclic loading. The mechanical part of the model is based upon a Zener rheological representation in which the specific free energy potential is dependent on an added internal variable, allowing the description of the time-dependent mechanical response. The large strain mechanical behavior is described using a Langevin spring, while the continuous stress-softening under cyclic loading is taken into account by means of a network alteration kinetics. The thermo-mechanical coupling is defined by postulating the existence of a dissipation pseudo-potential, function of the viscous dilatation tensor. The proposed model is fully three-dimensional and is implemented into a finite element code. The model parameters are identified using experimental data obtained on a styrene-butadiene rubber under a given strain rate for different strain conditions. Predicted evolutions given by the model for other strain rates are found in good agreement with the experimental data. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Barrutia J.M.,University of the Basque Country | Barrutia J.M.,University of Oxford | Echebarria C.,University of the Basque Country | Echebarria C.,University of Oxford | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

This paper provides the first comprehensive review of peer-reviewed journal articles on Local Agenda 21 processes worldwide between 1992 (Rio Summit) and 2012 (Rio+20 Summit). An in-depth analysis is carried out on 90 articles selected from an initial sample of 420, in order to determine their profile in terms of time, geography, authors' field and methodological approach, and analyze their content to: (1) proxy the gap between the ideal Local Agenda 21 model and real-world Local Agenda 21 practices in terms of participation, and long-term orientation and monitoring; and (2) identify the causes of this gap and ways to overcome it. Our findings show that real-world Local Agenda 21 practices are far from fitting the ideal Local Agenda 21 model. Progress in terms of participation is very limited and many of the reported processes fail in terms of long-term orientation and monitoring. This gap between purposes and real-world practices seems to be related with limited and decreasing resources and decision-making powers of local governments, a hierarchically oriented political-administrative system, and the top-down mind-set of many local representatives. However, even though a lot remains to be done and there is plenty of room for theoretical and operational development, Local Agenda 21 processes have made a lasting impact, deeply changing the way we understand and implement sustainable development today. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Pena-Romero A.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran | Dominguez-Cherit J.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran | Guzman-Abrego A.,Rafael Landivar University
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Erythema multiforme is an acute muco-cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with a variety of etiologies. It is characterized by a skin eruption, with or without oral or other mucous membrane lesions. General characteristics and treatmet have been described, but nail findings are rarely reported. Here we present a 26-year-old patient with acral erythema multiforme and erythronychia adjacent to skin lesions on the back of the hands. To our knowledge this association had not been reported before. © 2015 Indian Journal of Dermatology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Source


Rejmankova E.,University of California at Davis | Komarek J.,University of South Bohemia | Dix M.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Komarkova J.,University of South Bohemia | Giron N.,Rafael Landivar University
Limnologica | Year: 2011

Lake Atitlan, one of the most important lakes not only in Central America but in the whole world, is facing serious problems with increasing water pollution. Over the last several decades, the uncontrolled nutrient input into the lake has lead to high P levels and low N:P ratios, initiating cyanobacterial blooms. The first bloom occurred in December of 2008, followed by more extensive bloom in October 2009. The blooms are formed by cyanobacteria from the rare planktic Lyngbya hieronymusii/birgei/robusta complex. Based on the species morphology, the Atitlan population corresponds to L. robusta and this is the first case of reported bloom of this species worldwide. Remote sensing images documented that at the maximum bloom development, 40% of the 137km2 of the lake area were covered by dense patches of Lyngbya, with the chlorophyll a concentration reaching over 100μgL-1. The only toxins detected in the 2009 bloom were trace levels of cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin with 12 and 58ngg-1, respectively. The nitrogen fixation followed a pattern expected in non-heterocytous cyanobacteria, i.e., the nitrogenase activity was minimal during the day, while during the night the activity reached 2.2nmol C2H4μg Ch a-1h-1. Delta 15N of -0.86‰ was well in the range given for nitrogen fixing organisms. The cell C, N and P content was 36.7%, 5.9% and 0.9%, respectively, resulting in the molar ratio of 105:14.4:1. A well designed and executed lake monitoring program, strict control of nutrient input into the lake, and public education are the necessary prerequisites for potential prevention of even more severe blooms than the one from 2009. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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