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Peck-Murray J.A.,Rady Childrens Hospital San Diego
Journal of Hand Therapy | Year: 2015

This article describes how hand therapy for pediatric patients can be enhanced through the use of play with everyday items. Playful activities integrate purposeful hand skills of pinch, grasp and manipulation, while encouraging the child to fully participate in therapy and home programs. By referring to Takata's developmental hierarchy of play, therapists can design the sessions to include novel, fun and age appropriate activities. The author offers eight sample activities for specific therapy goals utilizing inexpensive, everyday items. © 2015 Hanley & Belfus, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Shymon S.J.,University of California at San Diego | Roocroft J.,Rady Childrens Hospital San Diego | Edmonds E.W.,University of California at San Diego
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics | Year: 2015

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all Bankart repairs performed between 2006 and 2010 at a tertiary care childrens hospital. A shift in treatment modalities occurred in 2008 creating 2 cohorts, open and arthroscopic. Brachial plexus injury, congenital soft-tissue disorder, or incomplete charts were excluded. Demographics, age at surgery, follow-up length, and sport were recorded. Telephone interviews were then performed obtaining the most current QuickDASH (Disability Arm, Shoulder, or Hand), WOSI (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index), SF-12 (Short Form 12), SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation), and verbal pain scores; as well as, inquiring about recurrent dislocation and further surgery.Background: Arthroscopic and open Bankart repairs have proven efficacy in adults with recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Although studies have included children in their analysis, none have previously compared functional outcomes or redislocation rates between these 2 methodologies for anteroinferior glenoid labrum repair in this young population. We hypothesize that open and arthroscopic Bankart repair in children will have similar functional outcomes and redislocation rates, but differing results from adults treated in a similar manner.Results: Ninety-nine children (16.9±1.5 y) were included (28 open, 71 arthroscopic). There were no differences in preoperative demographics. Fifty-one patients completed the questionnaires (11 open, 40 arthroscopic). No significant differences in the outcomes scores were seen between the 2 groups. Of the 99 patients, 21 (21%) had redislocation or secondary surgery; there was no significant difference in failure rate between groups (4 open, 17 arthroscopic). A plotted survival curve demonstrated that the adolescent shoulder undergoing Bankart repair for recurrent traumatic anterior instability has a 2-year survival of 86% and a 5-year survival of only 49%, regardless of technique.Conclusions: In adolescents, there is no significant difference in functional outcomes or redislocation rates between open and arthroscopic Bankart repair, yet both demonstrate a very high risk of failure in this young, athletic population which contrasts the results in the historic adult population.Level of Evidence: Level III-retrospective comparative study. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Tremoulet A.H.,University of California at San Diego | Jain S.,University of California at San Diego | Jaggi P.,Ohio State University | Jimenez-Fernandez S.,University of California at San Diego | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Kawasaki disease, the most common cause of acquired heart disease in developed countries, is a self-limited vasculitis that is treated with high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin. Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease increases the risk of coronary artery aneurysms. We assessed whether the addition of infliximab to standard therapy (intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin) in acute Kawasaki disease reduces the rate of treatment resistance. Methods We undertook a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in two children's hospitals in the USA to assess the addition of infliximab (5 mg per kg) to standard therapy. Eligible participants were children aged 4 weeks-17 years who had a fever (temperature ≥38·0°C) for 3-10 days and met American Heart Association criteria for Kawasaki disease. Participants were randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to two treatment groups: infliximab 5 mg/kg at 1 mg/mL intravenously over 2 h or placebo (normal saline 5 mL/kg, administered intravenously). Randomisation was based on a randomly permuted block design (block sizes 2 and 4), stratified by age, sex, and centre. Patients, treating physicians and staff, study team members, and echocardiographers were all masked to treament assignment. The primary outcome was the difference between the groups in treatment resistance defined as a temperature of 38·0°C or higher at 36 h to 7 days after completion of the infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00760435. Findings 196 patients were enrolled and randomised: 98 to the infliximab group and 98 to placebo. One patient in the placebo group was withdrawn from the study because of hypotension before receiving treatment. Treatment resistance rate did not differ significantly (11 [11·2%] for infliximab and 11 [11·3%] for placebo; p=0·81). Compared with the placebo group, participants given infliximab had fewer days of fever (median 1 day for infliximab vs 2 days for placebo; p<0·0001). At week 2, infliximab-treated patients had greater mean reductions in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0·009) and a two-fold greater decrease in Z score of the left anterior descending artery (p=0·045) than did those in the placebo group, but this difference was not significant at week 5. Participants in the infliximab group had a greater mean reduction in C-reactive protein concentration (p=0·0003) and in absolute neutrophil count (p=0·024) at 24 h after treatment than did those given placebo, but by week 2 this difference was not significant. At week 5, none of the laboratory values differed significantly compared with baseline. No significant differences were recorded between the two groups at any timepoint in proximal right coronary artery Z scores, age-adjusted haemoglobin values, duration of hospital stay, or any other laboratory markers of inflammation measured. No reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion occurred in patients treated with infliximab compared with 13 (13·4%) patients given placebo (p<0·0001). No serious adverse events were directly attributable to infliximab infusion. Interpretation The addition of infliximab to primary treatment in acute Kawasaki disease did not reduce treatment resistance. However, it was safe and well tolerated and reduced fever duration, some markers of inflammation, left anterior descending coronary artery Z score, and intravenous immunoglobulin reaction rates. Funding US Food and Drug Administration, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Janssen Biotech.

Isaacs Jr. H.,Rady Childrens Hospital San Diego | Isaacs Jr. H.,University of California at San Diego
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2010

Purpose: Few studies have focused on the behavior of rhabdoid tumor (RT) in the fetus and neonate. The purpose of this review is to show that perinatal RTs are associated with unusual findings and a poor prognosis. Methods: The author conducted a 40-year systematic review of the literature. Clinical presentation, pathology, management, and outcome of 72 fetuses and neonates with RTs are discussed. Results: Seventy-two fetuses and neonates presented with RTs detected prenatally (n = 12) and during the neonatal period (n = 60). The review consisted of 3 main groups: extrarenal noncentral nervous system (CNS) RT, renal RT, and CNS RT. There were some group differences in survival: extrarenal non-CNS RT (3/33 or 9.1%), renal RT (2/27 or 7.4%), and CNS RT (2/12 or 16.7%). Metastatic RT was present at diagnosis in more than half the patients (41/72 or 57%) who had a survival of 2.3%. The overall survival was 9.7%. For statistical results, there was no significant difference in survival among the 3 groups by type of tumor (P = .692). χ 2 analysis for survival with and without metastases was not valid due to small sample size. Conclusions: The review shows that extrarenal RT was more common than either renal RT or CNS RT groups that is different than that observed in older individuals. Concomitant brain tumors were found in almost a third of fetuses and neonates. The CNS involvement occurred more often in patients with renal RT than in those with extrarenal RT. Metastatic disease at diagnosis was noted in more than half of the patients. Higher stage and presence of a CNS tumor were significant determinants in survival. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schierholz E.,Rady Childrens Hospital San Diego
Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses | Year: 2014

Therapeutic hypothermia as a neuroprotective strategy in neonates is an established standard of care for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To maximize the neuroprotective effect in infants with HIE, hypothermia is initiated as soon as possible after birth. Many infants who would benefit from therapeutic hypothermia are not born at centers that have intensive care units or offer therapeutic hypothermia and are thus transported to a tertiary care center with a NICU, offering specialty services of therapeutic hypothermia and pediatric neurology. The neonatal transport team plays a significant role in the management of these critically ill infants. Clinical research provides data for safe and effective management of these infants during therapeutic hypothermia in the NICU; however, there are no evidence-based clinical guidelines for management before and during transport. The establishment of evidence-based guidelines for cooling before and during transport will facilitate early recognition of infants who would benefit from therapeutic hypothermia therapy, and decrease delay in initiation of therapy. Careful assessment, monitoring, and intervention by the transport team are critical to provide appropriate care and ensure safe transport of these infants.

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