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Metropolitan Government of Nashville-Davidson (balance), TN, United States

Loeb R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | King S.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area | Helton J.,Lipscomb University
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2015

The open canopy xeric forests of Cherrywood, Ganier, and Harris Ridges in Radnor Lake State Natural Area, Nashville, Tennessee, were sampled to determine species diversity and stems/ha of trees, saplings, and seedlings. Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus) was dominant in each forest, but tree, sapling, and seedling stems/ha means were significantly larger in Ganier than Cherrywood and Harris. Ganier has had heavy trail use but no hunting since 1973. Of the 12 tree species present on Ganier, only two species exceeded 5% of the total tree stems/ha. Harris had hunting but no hiking trail until 2013, and six of the 21 tree species exceeded 5% of the total tree stems/ha. At Harris, shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), and September elm (Ulmus serotina) had significantly more tree and seedling stems/ha than Cherrywood and Ganier. The larger populations of trees and seedlings are associated with reduced herbivory and seed consumption, which are an indirect result of hunting. For Cherrywood, five of the 19 tree species exceeded 5% of the total tree stems/ha. The intermediate position of Cherrywood, between Ganier and Harris, in relation to species diversity and the number of species that exceeded 5% of the total tree stems/ha, may be explained by no hiking and no hunting since 1973. In urban natural area ridge forests, trampling by hikers appears to be the origin of decreased species diversity and a dominant tree species population increase. Conversely, hunting is associated with greater species diversity and larger populations of subdominant species. Source


Loeb R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | King S.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area | Helton J.,Lipscomb University
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2014

Urban North American beaver (Castor canadensis) damage of trees and saplings was compared between shore forests and forests uphill of macadam, wood chip, and raised wood board human pathways used daily in Radnor Lake State Natural Area, Nashville, TN. Also, comparisons of beaver damage were made between shore forests and forests uphill of bare earth deer paths used less than once a month by humans and the forests were on 5% and 30% slopes. Means, standard deviations, and t-tests (P≤ 0.05) were calculated for percent beaver damage, which included undamaged stems, beaver-cut stems, and beaver-cut stumps. Significant differences in beaver damage of trees and saplings were found between forests uphill of the human pathways used daily and the respective shore forests. Beaver damage of trees and saplings was not significantly different between the shore forests and forests uphill of the deer paths used less than once a month by humans for the 5% slope forest; however, the differences were significant for the 30% slope forest. Beaver damage of trees and saplings was significantly greater in the uphill of the deer paths forests than the uphill of the human pathways forests for comparable slope forests. Human scent on the pathways used daily made of macadam, wood chips, and raised wood boards was interpreted to be the barrier sensed by beavers to not cross over or under the human pathways to damage trees and saplings. This research suggests utilizing human pathways as an odor fence to spatially limit beaver damage, which provides a whole forest management alternative to individual tree protection for management of beaver damage in the urban forest. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Loeb R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Germeraad J.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area | Griffin L.,Colorado State University | Ward S.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2011

Human trampling destroys seedlings and saplings without regard to species in urban park forests and the addition of deer browsing compounds the losses. The unexamined research question is: what is the effect of white deer browsing in the absence of human trampling? Radnor Lake State Natural Area, Nashville, TN, USA has been protected from off-pathway human transit since 1973 and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) were restored to the Natural Area in 1980. From 1976 to 2007, a plot with tagged trees in the mesic slope forest showed the tree population for 16 species decreased, two remained stable, and one increased. The pattern of increase for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) was 57 new trees added but 46 trees were lost, which appears as a population increase from 1976 to 1996 and a decrease in 2007. In all five forest communities, the total tree stems per ha declined from 1974 to 2008. During the period 1994-2008, O. virginianus over browsing decimated the seedling population of all species and caused the total for stems per ha for saplings to become smaller than the total stems per ha for trees in each community except the ravine forest, which had the greatest loss of trees. The only consistent change in trees across the five communities when comparing 1974-2008 was the significant tree importance value increase for A. saccharum. The conflicting significant changes for major species, other than A. saccharum, across the Natural Area forest communities informs management for other urban park forests-browsing by O. virginianus results in increased numbers for trees and saplings in the communities the species are well adapted to grow and reproduce in and fewer trees and saplings in the communities with environmental conditions that are not well suited to the species. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Loeb R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Germeraad J.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area | Treece T.,Lipscomb University | Wakefield D.,Lipscomb University | Ward S.,Radnor Lake State Natural Area
Invasive Plant Science and Management | Year: 2010

Amur honeysuckle recovery following treatments annually and only in 1-year, during 2002 to 2009, was compared in the forests of Radnor Lake State Natural Area in Nashville, TN. Annual treatment areas had significantly lower mean Amur honeysuckle plant counts than 1-yr treatment areas for both ≤1 m (3.3 ft) and >1 m plant heights and on both sloped and level areas, except for plants ≤1 m tall on level areas, which most likely indicated more soil moisture increasing seedling establishment and root sprouting in the first year after treatment. The significant, positive Pearson's product moment correlations for Amur honeysuckle counts of plants ≤1 m tall, with arboreal basal area and with canopy species diversity in the level areas of the annual treatment plots, were also most likely evidence for the importance of greater soil moisture during the first year after treatment for greater Amur honeysuckle recovery. For land managers interested in native vegetation restoration, guidance is provided to plan for long-term, invasive plant species treatment and recovery monitoring. © Weed Science Society of America 2010. Source

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