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Garber E.A.E.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Venkateswaran K.V.,Radix Biosolutions, Ltd | O'brien T.W.,Tetracore Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Detection of proteinaceous toxins in complex heterogeneous mixtures requires highly specific and sensitive methods. Multiplex technology employing multiple antibodies that recognize different epitopes on a toxin provides built-in confirmatory analysis as part of the initial screen and thereby increases the reliability associated with both presumptive positive and negative results. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were obtained for abrin, botulinum toxins, ricin, and Staphylococcus enterotoxins A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, and SEC). Food samples were spiked with the toxins either individually or mixed and analyzed following 40-fold dilution. Abrin, botulinum toxin A complex, ricin, and SEB displayed limits of detection in the original food samples ranging from 0.03 to 1.3 μg/mL, from 0.03 to 0.07 μg/mL, from 0.01 to 0.1 μg/mL, and from <0.01 to 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Redundancy, that is, multiple antibodies for each toxin, some recognizing different epitopes or displaying different binding affinities, provided a "fingerprint" for the presence of the toxins and built-in confirmation, thus reducing the likelihood of false-positive and false-negative results. Inclusion of internal controls, including a unique protein, helped control for variations in dilution. Paramagnetic microspheres facilitated the detection of analyte in foods containing particulate matter incompatible with the use of filter plates normally used in the wash steps of assays employing standard polystyrene microspheres. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Ampersand Biosciences LLC, LGC Ltd, Quintiles, Pfizer and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The AAPS journal | Year: 2016

Multiplex ligand binding assays (LBAs) are increasingly being used to support many stages of drug development. The complexity of multiplex assays creates many unique challenges in comparison to single-plexed assays leading to various adjustments for validation and potentially during sample analysis to accommodate all of the analytes being measured. This often requires a compromise in decision making with respect to choosing final assay conditions and acceptance criteria of some key assay parameters, depending on the intended use of the assay. The critical parameters that are impacted due to the added challenges associated with multiplexing include the minimum required dilution (MRD), quality control samples that span the range of all analytes being measured, quantitative ranges which can be compromised for certain targets, achieving parallelism for all analytes of interest, cross-talk across assays, freeze-thaw stability across analytes, among many others. Thus, these challenges also increase the complexity of validating the performance of the assay for its intended use. This paper describes the challenges encountered with multiplex LBAs, discusses the underlying causes, and provides solutions to help overcome these challenges. Finally, we provide recommendations on how to perform a fit-for-purpose-based validation, emphasizing issues that are unique to multiplex kit assays.


Almey A.,Concordia University at Montréal | Cannell E.,Concordia University at Montréal | Bertram K.,Concordia University at Montréal | Filardo E.,Radix Biosolutions, Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2014

High plasma levels of estradiol (E2) are associated with use of a place memory system over a response memory system. We examined whether infusing estradiol into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or anterior cingulate cortex (AC) could affect memory system bias in female rats. We also examined the ultrastructural distribution of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ERβ, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) in the mPFC of female rats as a mechanism for the behavioral effects of E2 in the mPFC. Each rat was infused bilaterally with either E2 (0.13 μg) or vehicle into the mPFC or AC. The majority of E2 mPFC rats used place memory. In contrast, the majority of mPFC vehicle rats and AC E2 or vehicle rats used response memory. These data show that mPFC E2 rapidly biases females to use place memory. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that ERα, ERβ, and GPER1 are localized in the mPFC, almost exclusively at extranuclear sites. This is the first time that GPER1 has been localized to the mPFC of rats and the first time that ERα and ERβ have been described at extranuclear sites in the rat mPFC. The majority of receptors were observed on axons and axon terminals, suggesting that estrogens alter presynaptic transmission in the mPFC. This provides a mechanism via which ERs could rapidly alter transmission in the mPFC to alter PFC-dependent behaviors, such as memory system bias. The discrete nature of immunolabeling for these membrane-associated ERs may explain the discrepancy in previous light microscopy studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.


Basile A.J.,Centers for Disease Control | Horiuchi K.,Centers for Disease Control | Panella A.J.,Centers for Disease Control | Laven J.,Centers for Disease Control | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression "Logitboost" as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests.


Wang J.,Amgen Inc. | Nowatzke W.,Radix Biosolutions, Ltd | Ma M.,Amgen Inc.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Specific guidelines on bioanalytical method validation for drug development support are recommended by regulatory agencies. Regarding stability assessment, US FDA states that 'Stability procedures should evaluate the stability of the analytes during sample collection and handling, after long-term (frozen at the intended storage temperature) and short-term (bench-top, room temperature) storage, and after going through freeze and thaw cycles and the analytical process'. Additional regulatory considerations are discussed including topics such as analyte and reagent stability. This article reviews the regulatory requirements as issued by the USA (FDA), Europe (EMA) and Japan (MHLW), for stability studies where bioanalytical methods are used to support drug development programs and summarizes the current industry standard for conducting stability studies when utilizing ligand-binding assays. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.


Zhong Z.D.,Amgen Inc. | Dinnogen S.,Amgen Inc. | Hokom M.,Amgen Inc. | Ray C.,Amgen Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2010

A well-designed anti-drug antibody (ADA) immunoassay is critical for appropriately monitoring the immunogenicity profile of a therapeutic protein during its development. AMG 386 is a peptide-Fc fusion protein that inhibits angiogenesis by preventing the interaction of angiopoietins with the Tie2 receptor. In bridging immunoassays for ADA, interference by the drug target, present in the assay sample, can result in false positive antibody detection. We used a statistical design-of-experiments approach to identify angiopoietin interference in bridging immunoassays of anti-AMG 386 antibodies. We also demonstrated that a high-affinity monoclonal antibody, directed against an epitope on angiopoietin that competes with AMG 386 binding, could inhibit the angiopoietin interference while preserving the detection of ADA. This report describes the development and validation of methodologies for evaluating and addressing drug target interference in bioanalytical assays that involve interactions between drug, ADA, immune complexes, and drug target. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Pandya K.,Amgen Inc. | Ray C.A.,Radix Biosolutions, Ltd | Brunner L.,Amgen Inc. | Wang J.,Amgen Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

Bioanalytical laboratories require accurate and precise pipetting to assure reproducible and accurate results for reliable data. Two areas where pipetting differences among analysts lead to poor reproducibility are long term stability testing and sample dilution. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the problems with manual pipetting, describe an automation strategy to mitigate risks associated with manual pipetting, and provide recommendations on a control strategy that properly monitors samples requiring dilutions. We determined differences among various manual pipetting techniques by analysts within a laboratory. To reduce variability in pipetting, a flexible modular liquid handling script was created on the Hamilton Microlab Star (HMS) to perform sample dilution, pre-treatment and plate loading. The script is capable of handling variable dilution factors. Additionally, two dilution controls were prepared and tested at concentrations of high and mid quality controls (QC). These same dilution controls were incorporated into both pre-study validation and in-study QCs to monitor dilution processing and assay performance. Variability of manual pipetting among 11 analysts was more negatively biased with increasing dilution. Forward and reverse pipetting delivering different volumes contributed to the discordance. The dilutional bias with manual pipetting was eliminated using the liquid handler. Total error of dilution controls was less than 20%. The in-study pass rate was 100%. Application of liquid handlers minimizes the variability and bias due to manual pipetting differences among analysts. The incorporation of dilution QCs serves a dual purpose to monitor the dilution process of the samples as well as the binding assay performance. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.52K | Year: 2015

Not Available


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 224.50K | Year: 2013

To establish a technology-based platform for simultaneous and sensitive detection of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea (AAD). This system will be a sensitive quantitative multiplex diagnostic assay consisting of antibodies specific for Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and non-C. difficile ADD. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE


Trademark
Radix Biosolutions, Ltd | Date: 2010-08-31

Chemical reagents for non-medical purposes, namely, for use in evaluating the efficacy and accuracy of research assays.

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