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Kokate R.A.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Chaudhary P.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Sun X.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Thamake S.I.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | And 5 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2016

Background: Delivery of PLGA (poly [D, L-lactide-co-glycolide])-based biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to antigen presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, has potential for cancer immunotherapy. Materials & methods: Using a PLGA NP vaccine construct CpG-NP-Tag (CpG-ODN-coated tumor antigen [Tag] encapsulating NP) prepared using solvent evaporation technique we tested the efficacy of ex vivo and in vivo use of this construct as a feasible platform for immune-based therapy. Results: CpG-NP-Tag NPs were avidly endocytosed and localized in the endosomal compartment of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to CpG-NP-Tag NPs exhibited an increased maturation (higher CD80/86 expression) and activation status (enhanced IL-12 secretion levels). In vivo results demonstrated attenuation of tumor growth and angiogenesis as well as induction of potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Conclusion: Collectively, results validate dendritic cells stimulatory response to CpG-NP-Tag NPs (ex vivo) and CpG-NP-Tag NPs' tumor inhibitory potential (in vivo) for therapeutic applications, respectively. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd.

Chaudhary P.,University of North Texas | Thamake S.I.,University of North Texas | Thamake S.I.,Radiomedix, Inc. | Shetty P.,University of North Texas | Vishwanatha J.K.,University of North Texas
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein, is abundantly present at the surface of triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancer cells. Interactions between cell-surface AnxA2 and tyrosine kinase receptors have an important role in the tumour microenvironment and act together to enhance tumour growth. The mechanism supporting this role is still unknown.Methods:The membrane function of AnxA2 was blocked by incubating cells with anti-AnxA2 antibodies. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), flow cytometry, Clonogenic, and wound-healing assays were performed in this study.Results:We demonstrate that AnxA2 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface and has an important role in cancer cell proliferation and migration by modulating EGFR functions. Blocking AnxA2 function at the cell surface by anti-AnxA2 antibody suppressed the EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and internalisation by blocking its homodimerisation. Furthermore, addition of AnxA2 antibody significantly inhibited the EGFR-dependent PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK downstream pathways under both EGF-induced and basal growth conditions, resulting in lower cell proliferation and migration.Conclusions:These findings suggest that cell-surface AnxA2 has an important regulatory role in EGFR-mediated oncogenic processes by keeping EGFR signalling events in an activated state. Therefore, AnxA2 could potentially be used as a therapeutic target in triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancers. © 2014 Cancer Research UK.

Mueller D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Breeman W.A.P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Klette I.,Zentralklinik Bad Berka | Gottschaldt M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 5 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2016

Gallium-68 (68 Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t 12 = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize 68 Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging. By working in a lead-shielded hot-cell system, 68 Ga 3+ of the generator eluate is trapped on a cation exchanger cartridge (100 mg 1/48 mm long and 5 mm diameter) and then eluted with acidified 5 M NaCl solution directly into a sodium acetate-buffered solution containing a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or DOTA-like chelator-modified peptide. The main advantages of this procedure are the high efficiency and the absence of organic solvents. It can be applied to a variety of peptides, which are stable in 1 M NaCl solution at a pH value of 3-4 during reaction. After labeling, neutralization, sterile filtration and quality control (instant thin-layer chromatography (iTLC), HPLC and pH), the radiopharmaceutical can be directly administered to patients, without determination of organic solvents, which reduces the overall synthesis-to-release time. This procedure has been adapted easily to automated synthesis modules, which leads to a rapid preparation of 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals (12-16 min). © 2016 Macmillan Publihers Limited. All rights reserved.

Radiomedix, Inc. | Date: 2011-03-31

Radiopharmaceutical synthesizing machines comprised of a series of syringes, valves, tubing, disposable cassettes and reaction vials used to make radioisotopes for positron emission tomography for use in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Radiomedix, Inc. | Date: 2015-01-22

pharmaceutical preparation useful in the diagnosis and management of endocrine tumors.

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