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Porto Alegre, Brazil

Castiella A.,Gastroenterology Service | Zapata E.,Gastroenterology Service | Alustiza J.M.,Radiology Service
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2010

Advances in recent years in the understanding of, and the genetic diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) have changed the approach to iron overload hereditary diseases. The ability to use a radiologic tool (MRI) that accurately provides liver iron concentration determination, and the presence of non-invasive serologic markers for fibrosis prediction (serum ferritin, platelet count, transaminases, etc ), have diminished the need for liver biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. Consequently, the role of liver biopsy in iron metabolism disorders is changing. Furthermore, the irruption of transient elastography to assess liver stiffness, and, more recently, the ability to determine liver fibrosis by means of MRI elastography will change this role even more, with a potential drastic decline in hepatic biopsies in years to come. This review will provide a brief summary of the different non-invasive methods available nowadays for diagnosis and prognosis in HH, and point out potential new techniques that could come about in the next years for fibrosis prediction, thus avoiding the need for liver biopsy in a greater number of patients. It is possible that liver biopsy will remain useful for the diagnosis of associateddiseases, where other non-invasive means are not possible, or for those rare cases displaying discrepancies between radiological and biochemical markers. © 2010 Baishideng. Source

Pistacchi M.,Neurology Service | Gioulis M.,Neurology Service | Contin F.,Radiology Service | Sanson F.,Neurology Service | Marsala S.Z.,Neurology Service
Neurological Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate and describe frequency and characteristics of sleep disorders in a large cohort of community dwelling persons with several degrees and typologies of cognitive disorders. 236 patients (78 men and 158 women) were enrolled with different subtypes of dementia: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), mixed dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), respectively. The sleep disturbances evaluated were: insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), REM behavior disorder (RBD), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and nightmares. Every type of sleep disorder was present in each type of dementia but with significant differences. Insomnia is found to be more present and specific for AD; EDS was associated with the presence of dementia in the elderly with LBD or PDD; RLS and nightmares that were recognized mainly in FTD, LBD, and PDD patients scores; patients with MCI had a frequency of sleep disturbances of any type equal to that of patients with AD presenting mostly insomnia, nightmares or RLS more frequently; nightmares were more frequent among LBD and PDD patients. Frequency of RDB was more frequent in FTD, AD, and VaD. Our findings demonstrate that sleep disturbance was related to dementia. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of persons with cognitive decline. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Italia. Source

De Castro J.,Radiology Service | Rodriguez M.C.,Lung Diseases Service | Martinez-Zorzano V.S.,University of Vigo | Sanchez-Rodriguez P.,University of Salamanca | Sanchez-Yague J.,University of Salamanca
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2014

Objectives: To analyze the fatty acid profiles of erythrocyte total lipids from patients with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and benign lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and asthma) to reveal the fatty acids that could be used as lung cancer biomarkers. Methods: Thirty, 20, 15, 17, and 19 patients with SCC, ADC, SCLC, COPD, and asthma, respectively, and 55 healthy participants were enrolled in our study. Fatty acid profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sialic acid (SA) and cytokeratins were measured by the thiobarbituric acid and immunoradiometric methods, respectively. Results: At least one of the main fatty acids might be used as a biomarker for every type of lung cancer: arachidonic (20:4n6), linoleic (18:2n6), and stearic (18:0) acids for ADC, SCC, and SCLC, respectively. These fatty acids showed diagnostic yields and operating characteristics similar to or higher than the commonly used SA or cytokeratin markers. Conclusions: Fatty acids from erythrocyte total lipids might be used as diagnostic biomarkers of lung ADC, SCC, and SCLC. Their use in different aspects of the disease process needs to be explored. © American Society for Clinical Pathology. Source

Brasseur J.L.,Radiology Service
Journal of Ultrasound | Year: 2012

The . biceps brachii muscle, which inserts proximally onto the scapula and distally onto the forearm, has several tendons with numerous anatomic peculiarities, which render their sonographic examination highly variable. Proximally, the tendon of the short head of the biceps inserts onto the coracoid process and that of the long head on the superior aspect of the glenoid. The distal biceps tendon is bifurcated, and it generally inserts on the radial tuberosity, around which it rolls during pronation/supination. There is a third distal structure, the . Lacertus fibrosus, an aponeurosis that branches off from the medial aspect of the tendon, crossing the median artery and median nerve, and inserting on the superficial aponeurosis of the flexor muscles. The sonographic examination of these tendons focuses on nine separate zones of interest: the glenoid insertion of the long head, its extension to the upper pole of the humeral head, the rotator interval, the reflection to the upper bicipital groove, the bicipital groove, the upper myotendinous junction, the lower myotendinous junction, the distal tendon(s), and the inferior enthesis. Because of their morphological and topographical characteristics, the biceps tendons are subject to a variety of lesions, some of which are frequently misdiagnosed on the basis of clinical findings. Ultrasound plays an important role in detecting and characterizing these lesions. Proper examination of the biceps (the distal portion in particular) is a difficult task that cannot be improvised. © 2011 Elsevier Srl. Source

Perez-de-Llano L.A.,Pneumology Service | Carballada F.,Hospital Xeral Caldec | Castro Anon O.,Pneumology Service | Pizarro M.,Pneumology Service | And 4 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of baseline exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) to recognise individuals with difficult-to-treat asthma who have the potential to achieve control with a guideline-based stepwise strategy. 102 consecutive patients with suboptimal asthma control underwent stepwise increase in the treatment with maximal fluticasone/salmeterol combination dose for 1 month. Then, those who remained uncontrolled received oral corticosteroids for an additional month. With this approach, 53 patients (52%) gained control. Those who achieved control were more likely to have positive skin results (60.4% versus 34%; p=0.01), positive bronchodilator test (57.1% versus 35.8%; p50.02) and peak expiratory flow variability ≥20% (71.1% versus 49.1%; p=0.04). Conversely, depression was more frequent in those who remained uncontrolled (18.4 % versus 43.4 %; p=0.01). An FeNO value ≥30 ppb demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5% (95% CI 73.9-94.5%) and a specificity of 90.6% (95% CI 79.7-95.9%) for the identification of responsive asthmatics. The current results suggest that FeNO can identify patients with difficult-to-treat asthma and the potential to respond to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or systemic steroids. Copyright©ERS 2010. Source

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