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Giles E.,Paediatric Gastroenterology | Barclay A.R.,Paediatric Gastroenterology | Chippington S.,Radiology | Wilson D.C.,University of Edinburgh
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background Barium meal enteroclysis (BM) is the recommended imaging technique for small bowel inaccessible by ileo-colonoscopy when diagnosing paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease, but it has poor sensitivity and involves ionising radiation. MRI enterography (MRE) is an alternative methodology. Aims To critically appraise the published evidence on MRE in the assessment of Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease by systematic review. Methods Review of all English language data reporting MRE for the investigation of patients <18 years with known or suspected IBD. Primary searches of Medline (Jan 1950-April 2012), Cinahl (1966-April 2012) and Pubmed (Jan 1950-April 2012) were performed using keyword and MeSH terms; IBD; Magnetic resonance imaging; small bowel imaging; EMBASE was then searched. Two authors independently assessed the quality of studies using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Results Searches yielded 930 035 hits, combination word searches limited to 1983 titles. Fifty-two studies were fully reviewed, 41 were excluded due to lack of paediatric data. Eleven studies of 496 children were included. All studies used endoscopy as the reference test. 10/496 patients required jejunal intubation for bowel preparation. Meta-analysis of six comparable studies gave a pooled sensitivity and specificity for MRE detection of active terminal ileal Crohn's disease of 84% and 97% respectively. Studies displayed heterogeneity in bowel preparation, scanning technique, reporting methodology and timing of ileo-colonoscopy in relation to MRE. In three studies comparing BM, MRE had greater sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions MRE is a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Technical considerations require refinement and standardisation; however, MRE has no radiation. Current data suggest that MRE should supersede BM as the SB imaging technique in centres with appropriate expertise. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chintamaneni S.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Finzel K.,Radiology | Gruber B.L.,York College
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2010

Fractures have a significant impact on the quality of life for the patient in addition to an enormous indirect cost in lost productivity for our economy. While majority of fractures heal uneventfully, some fail to heal even after many months resulting in nonunion. Introduction: Sternal nonunions, although rare, are particularly onerous for the patient given the magnitude of impact on quality of life. Methods: Current treatment for fracture nonunions emphasizes various approaches to surgical fixation in addition to bone grafting. These treatments are aggressive and have a variety of drawbacks, rendering them suboptimal as a therapeutic approach. Conclusion: Based on the success of teriparatide in animal studies to accelerate fracture healing, there is growing interest in using this drug in humans for the same purpose. We report a case of what we believe to be the first successful use of teriparatide in the healing of a sternal nonunion fracture. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2009.

Kleinerman R.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Whang T.B.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Bard R.L.,Radiology | Marmur E.S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Ultrasonic imaging has been used in the field of dermatology for nearly 30 years. In this review, we seek to explain the basic principles of ultrasound as they relate to the skin. Based on differences in keratin, collagen, and water content, ultrasonic waves are reflected back to a transducer and translated into a gray-scale image for interpretation. The technicalities of the process and its variations (power, continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, ultrasound elastography) are briefly reviewed, and we further highlight many of the applications for ultrasound in the treatment and diagnosis of dermatologic conditions, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, and lipoablation. Each of these entities is uniquely characterized using ultrasonic techniques. Based on published sources, we contend that although ultrasound is still being fine-tuned for application in dermatology and largely remains in experimental phases, it has potential for use in many arenas of our specialty. © 2011 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.

Bishawi M.,Cardiothoracic Surgery | Moore W.,Radiology | Bilfinger T.,Cardiothoracic Surgery
Journal of Surgical Research | Year: 2013

Background: Nonesmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a predilection to occur in emphysematous lungs. The relation between the regional severity of emphysema and the location of NSCLC as well as long-term survival has been poorly studied. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 153 patients with biopsy-proven stage I NSCLC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were assigned an emphysema severity score in four regions of the lung. The location of the cancer was compared with the severity of emphysema in that region. Survival was also analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine patients had no emphysema documented on CT scan and 114 did. The most common location of cancer was the right upper quadrant with 37% of cancers, followed by the left upper quadrant with 23% of cancers. Twenty-two percent of the cancers occurred in the right lower quadrant, and only 12% were in the left lower quadrant. There is a strong association for cancer being located in the area with the highest degree of emphysema (P < 0.001). Emphysema severity score was also associated with long-term survival (log-rank P = 0.03). Conclusions: The regional severity of emphysema assessed via a visual scale using CT appears to be associated with the location of lung cancer and is an independent predictor of long-term survival. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon. Treatment options include embolization, radiosurgery and surgery, separately or combined, the final goal being complete occlusion of the malformation. We describe the case of a symptomatic small subependymal AVM with a single deep drainage vein previously treated unsuccessfully by radiosurgery and transarterial embolization. The AVM was successfully embolized transvenously using Onyx, achieving complete occlusion in a single treatment session.

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