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Oxford, United Kingdom

Soto M.S.,Radiobiology Research Institute | Serres S.,Radiobiology Research Institute | Anthony D.C.,University of Oxford | Sibson N.R.,Radiobiology Research Institute
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2014

Background. Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. Methods. BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (105 cells/100 μL phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4-6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Results. Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and β4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm2 brain; P <. 05-0.01). Conclusions. These findings suggest that ALCAM/ALCAM and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions play an important functional role in the early stages of metastasis seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis. © 2013 © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Knight J.C.,University of Oxford | Knight J.C.,Radiobiology Research Institute | Cornelissen B.,University of Oxford | Cornelissen B.,Radiobiology Research Institute
American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2014

Due to their rapid and highly selective nature, bioorthogonal chemistry reactions are attracting a significant amount of recent interest in the radiopharmaceutical community. Over the last few years, reactions of this type have found tremendous utility in the construction of new radiopharmaceuticals and as a method of bioconjugation. Furthermore, reports are beginning to emerge in which these reactions are also being applied in vivo to facilitate a novel pretargeting strategy for the imaging and therapy of cancer. The successful implementation of such an approach could lead to dramatic improvements in image quality, therapeutic index, and reduced radiation dose to non-target organs and tissues. This review will focus on the potential of various bioorthogonal chemistry reactions to be used successfully in such an approach. Source

Evans M.C.,University of Oxford | Serres S.,University of Oxford | Khrapitchev A.A.,University of Oxford | Stolp H.B.,University of Oxford | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive to pathologic changes at symptom onset, no earlier biomarkers were previously identified and the underlying histopathologic correlates remain uncertain. To address these issues, we used a multimodal MRI approach targeting structural (T2, T1, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)), vascular (gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), and endothelial (vascular cell adhesion molecule-microparticles of iron oxide) changes, together with histopathologic analysis from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages of disease. Presymptomatic changes in brainstem nuclei were evident on T2-weighted images from as early as 60 days (P<0.05). Histologic indices of vacuolation, astro- and microglial activation all correlated with T2-weighted changes. Significant reductions in ADC (P<0.01) and MTR (P<0.05) were found at 120 days in the same brainstem nuclei. No changes in T1 relaxation, vascular permeability, or endothelial activation were found at any stage of disease. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI offers the strongest biomarker potential in this model, and that MRI has unique potential for noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of presymptomatically applied therapeutic and neuroprotective agents. © 2014 ISCBFM. Source

Serres S.,University of Oxford | Serres S.,Radiobiology Research Institute | O'Brien E.R.,University of Oxford | Sibson N.R.,University of Oxford
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

With the development of new imaging techniques, the potential for probing the molecular, cellular, and structural components of the tumor microenvironment in situ has increased dramatically. A multitude of imaging modalities have been successfully employed to probe different aspects of the tumor microenvironment, including expression of molecules, cell motion, cellularity, vessel permeability, vascular perfusion, metabolic and physiological changes, apoptosis, and inflammation. This chapter focuses on the most recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging methods, which offer a number of advantages over other methodologies, including high spatial resolution and the use of nonionizing radiation, as well as the use of such methods in the context of primary and secondary brain tumors. It also highlights how they can be used to assess the molecular and cellular changes in the tumor microenvironment in response to therapy. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

O'Brien E.R.,University of Oxford | Kersemans V.,University of Oxford | Tredwell M.,University of Oxford | Checa B.,University of Oxford | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

Metastatic spread of cancer cells to the brain is associated with high mortality, primarily because current diagnostic tools identify only well-advanced metastases. Brain metastases have been shown to induce a robust glial response, including both astrocyte and microglial activation. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that this stromal response may provide a sensitive biomarker of tumor burden, in particular through the use of SPECT/PET imaging agents targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) that is upregulated on activated glia. Our goals, therefore, were first to determine the spatial and temporal profile of glial activation during early metastasis growth in vivo and second to assess the potential of the radiolabeled TSPO ligand 123I-DPA-713 for early detection of brain metastases. Methods: Metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1- green fluorescent protein cells were injected either intracerebrally or intracardially into female BALB/c mice to induce brain metastases. Astrocyte and microglial activation was assessed immunohistochemically over a 28-d period, together with immunofluorescence detection of TSPO upregulation. Subsequently, SPECT imaging and autoradiography were used to determine in vivo binding of 123I-DPA-713 at metastatic sites. Results: Dynamic astrocyte and microglial activation was evident throughout the early stages of tumor growth, with the extent of astrocyte activation correlating significantly with tumor size (P < 0.0001). Microglial activation appeared to increase more rapidly than astrocyte activation at the earlier time points, but by later time points the extent of activation was comparable between the glial cell types. Upregulation of TSPO expression was found on both glial populations. Both autoradiographic and in vivo SPECT data showed strong positive binding of 123I-DPA-713 in the intracerebrally induced model of brain metastasis, which was significantly greater than that observed in controls (P < 0.05). 123I-DPA-713 binding was also evident autoradiographically in the intracardially induced model of brain metastasis but with lower sensitivity because of smaller tumor size (̃100-μm diameter vs. ̃600-μm diameter in the intracerebral model). Conclusion: These data suggest that the glial response to brain metastasis may provide a sensitive biomarker of tumor burden, with a tumor detection threshold lying between 100 and 600 μm in diameter. This approach could enable substantially earlier detection of brain metastases than the current clinical approach of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc. Source

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