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Wevrett J.,University of Surrey | Fenwick A.,Radioactivity Group | Scuffham J.,University of Surrey | Nisbet A.,University of Surrey
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2017

Within the field of molecular radiotherapy, there is a significant need for standardisation in dosimetry, in both quantitative imaging and dosimetry calculations. Currently, there are a wide range of techniques used by different clinical centres and as a result there is no means to compare patient doses between centres. To help address this need, a 3 year project was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme, and a number of clinical centres were involved in the project. One of the required outcomes of the project was to develop a calibration protocol for three dimensional quantitative imaging of volumes of interest.Two radionuclides were selected as being of particular interest: iodine-131 (131I, used to treat thyroid disorders) and lutetium-177 (177Lu, used to treat neuroendocrine tumours). A small volume of activity within a scatter medium (water), representing a lesion within a patient body, was chosen as the calibration method. To ensure ease of use in clinical centres, an "off-the-shelf" solution was proposed - to avoid the need for in-house manufacturing.The BIODEX elliptical Jaszczak phantom and 16. ml fillable sphere were selected. The protocol was developed for use on SPECT/CT gamma cameras only, where the CT dataset would be used to correct the imaging data for attenuation of the emitted photons within the phantom. The protocol corrects for scatter of emitted photons using the triple energy window correction technique utilised by most clinical systems. A number of clinical systems were tested in the development of this protocol, covering the major manufacturers of gamma camera generally used in Europe.Initial imaging was performed with 131I and 177Lu at a number of clinical centres, but due to time constraints in the project, some acquisitions were performed with 177Lu only. The protocol is relatively simplistic, and does not account for the effects of dead-time in high activity patients, the presence of background activity surrounding volumes of interest or the partial volume effect of imaging lesions smaller than 16ml.The development of this simple protocol demonstrates that it is possible to produce a standardised quantitative imaging protocol for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry. However, the protocol needs further development to expand it to incorporate other radionuclides, and to account for the effects that have been disregarded in this initial version. © 2017.

Pollanen R.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | Siiskonen T.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | Ihantola S.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | Toivonen H.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2011

High-resolution alpha spectrometry was applied for the activity determination of 10 reference sources containing different amounts of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 242Pu. They were analyzed as blind sources using a novel spectrum analysis tool ADAM. The information needed in the spectrum unfolding was taken only from the spectrum under investigation, and no tracers were applied. Therefore, a Monte Carlo program AASI was used to compute geometrical detection efficiency of the measurement setup. All reported activities corresponded to those of the reference sources within expanded uncertainty. The developed tools can be used for the activity determination in nondestructive alpha spectrometry or when the radionuclide composition does not change during the sample processing. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2011.

Lepy M.C.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Pearce A.,Radioactivity Group | Sima O.,University of Bucharest
Metrologia | Year: 2015

High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is a well-established metrological technique that can be applied to a large number of photon-emitting radionuclides, activity levels and sample shapes and compositions. Three kinds of quantitative information can be derived using this technique: detection efficiency calibration, radionuclide activity and photon emission intensities. In contrast to other radionuclide measurement techniques gamma-ray spectrometry provides unambiguous identification of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in addition to activity values. This extra information comes at a cost of increased complexity and inherently higher uncertainties when compared with other secondary techniques. The relative combined standard uncertainty associated with any result obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry depends not only on the uncertainties of the main input parameters but also on different correction factors. To reduce the uncertainties, the experimental conditions must be optimized in terms of the signal processing electronics and the physical parameters of the measured sample should be accurately characterized. Measurement results and detailed examination of the associated uncertainties are presented with a specific focus on the efficiency calibration, peak area determination and correction factors. It must be noted that some of the input values used in quantitative analysis calculation can be correlated, which should be taken into account in fitting procedures or calculation of the uncertainties associated with quantitative results. It is shown that relative combined standard uncertainties are rarely lower than 1% in gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. © 2015 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

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