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Hery C.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Tryggvadottir L.,Icelandic Cancer Registry | Tryggvadottir L.,University of Iceland | Sigurdsson T.,Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology

Since 1980, sunbed use and travel abroad have dramatically increased in Iceland (64°-66°N). The authors assessed temporal trends in melanoma incidence by body site in Iceland in relation to sunbed use and travel abroad. Using joinpoint analysis, they calculated estimated annual percent changes (EAPCs) and identified the years during which statistically significant changes in EAPC occurred. Between 1954 and 2006, the largest increase in incidence in men was observed on the trunk (EAPC = 4.6%, 95% confidence interval: 3.2, 6.0). In women, the slow increase in trunk melanoma incidence before 1995 was followed by a significantly sharper increase in incidence, mainly among women aged less than 50 years, resembling an epidemic incidence curve (1995-2002: EAPC = 20.4%, 95% confidence interval: 9.3, 32.8). In 2002, the melanoma incidence on the trunk was higher than the incidence on the lower limbs for women. Sunbed use in Iceland expanded rapidly after 1985, mainly among young women, and in 2000, it was approximately 2 and 3 times the levels recorded in Sweden and in the United Kingdom, respectively. Travels abroad were more prevalent among older Icelanders. The high prevalence of sunbed use probably contributed to the sharp increase in the incidence of melanoma in Iceland. © 2010 The Author. Source

Dowdall M.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Selnaes O.G.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Standring W.J.F.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Nielsen S.P.,Technical University of Denmark | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

Although high resolution gamma ray spectrometry serves as the primary analytical technique in emergency response situations, chances for laboratories to practice analysing the type of spectra that may be expected in the early phase of such a situation are limited. This problem is more acute for laboratories in countries that have no nuclear facilities. The analysis of synthetically generated spectra may serve as a useful surrogate for actual spectra; this paper reports the results of a multilateral intercomparison exercise conducted using such a spectrum. Results indicate that the laboratories involved appear to have no problems identifying radioactive isotopes that regularly appear in national and international intercomparisons or exercises. However, some problems are evident for isotopes that are less often encountered which may, however, occur during the early phases of a nuclear accident. Isotopes prone to true coincidence summation proved also to be difficult with regard to correction of activities in some cases. The synthesized spectrum constituted a useful means of comparative analysis of complex spectra multilaterally without the impracticalities of using a sample drawn from a reactor. © 2009 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

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