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News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Crustaceans may hold the key for a new type of wound dressing, preventing thousands of people from developing infections. Researchers have developed a bandage that uses an antibacterial substance formed from chitosan, a fiber taken from crustacean shells. A team from Lodz University of Technology in Poland led by Radoslaw Wach, Ph.D., developed the protective dressing. Hydrogel dressings—which are durable and elastic to easily adapt to the shape of the affected body part—can speed up healing and cool the wound down by providing moisture to the wound. “Since wound healing in severe cases may take a long time—up to several weeks—the probability of bacteria-mediated infection is high,” Wach said in a statement. “Our novel hydrogel dressing could, therefore, prevent many such infections and avoid serious complications.” According to the study, hydrogels are created from two-or multi-component systems of cross-linked polymer chains and water or aqueous medium filling the network voids. Wach was able to adapt the hydrogel dressing manufacturing technique and incorporate an antibacterial and biodegradable substance extracted from the crustacean shells within the dressing itself. According to the study, the essential physical characteristics of the hydrogel remained mostly unchanged, with only a somewhat increased water uptake capacity. This improves functionality of the dressing as extensive exudate for the wound can be efficiently absorbed. The researchers were able to extract the substance by isolating a substance called chitin that is found in the shells and changing its structure by removing most chemical branches from its acetyl groups. This resulted is a purified chitosan that has antimicrobial properties and helps to stop bleeding when added to bandages. They used a technique called irradiation that comprises cross-linking of hydrophilic polymers next to water to form the firm and durable structure of the dressing and sterilize it in a single step. They then used an electron beam to shine the polymer— which contained a solution of chitosan in lactic acid—while making the dressing, allowing the chitosan to become part of the dressing itself. “We developed a composition where chitosan is dissolved in lactic acid and, when added to the regular composition of the dressing, it does not adversely change its ability to cross-link during manufacturing or alter its mechanical and functional properties,” Wach said. “The new hydrogel wound dressing is biologically active.” According to a report by the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance commissioned in 2014 by the U.K., antimicrobial resistance could kill 10 million people each year by 2050. The study was published in Radiation Physics and Chemistry


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

Cancer develops by stepwise changes in growth characteristics of the cells that may be caused by genetic and epigenetic changes and environmental factors. With the use of new molecular biological methods the analyses of the biological mechanisms behind cancer development have started and generated new important knowledge. Joydeep Bhadury has in this thesis presented important translational cancer research that provides a better understanding of how genetic changes are related to the initiation and development of cancer. "The results of this research can contribute to identify new targets for future effective treatments of various cancer types", says Professor Eva Forssell-Aronsson, executive member of the Assar Gabrielsson Foundation. Assar Gabrielsson was one of the founders of Volvo. In accordance with his wishes, a foundation to provide funding for clinical research into cancer diseases was created in 1962. It primarily supports research projects which are considered to be promising but which do not yet have the necessary weight to attract grants from central funds. The Assar Gabrielsson Award will be presented Thursday May 18 between 12.30 and 14.00 in the Birgit Thilander room at the Academicum at Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg. During the ceremony the award winner will present his research. The ceremony will be held in English. Journalists who would like further information, please contact: Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Professor of Radiation Physics and Executive member of the Assar Gabrielsson Foundation phone: +46-703722626 Urban Wass, Senior Vice president, Research & Innovation policy, Volvo Group and Chair of the Assar Gabrielsson Foundation phone: +46-739028661 For more stories from the Volvo Group, please visit www.volvogroup.com/press. The Volvo Group is one of the world's leading manufacturers of trucks, buses, construction equipment and marine and industrial engines. The Group also provides complete solutions for financing and service. The Volvo Group, which employs about 95,000 people, has production facilities in 18 countries and sells its products in more than 190 markets. In 2016 the Volvo Group's sales amounted to about SEK 302 billion (EUR 31,9 billion). The Volvo Group is a publicly-held company headquartered in Göteborg, Sweden. Volvo shares are listed on Nasdaq Stockholm. For more information, please visit www.volvogroup.com. This information was brought to you by Cision http://news.cision.com http://news.cision.com/volvo/r/assar-gabrielsson-award-for-effective-treatment-of-cancer,c2248561 The following files are available for download: To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/volvo---assar-gabrielsson-award-for-effective-treatment-of-cancer-300447005.html


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: phys.org

The metallic chemical elements known as actinides take their name from the first element in the series: actinium. Actinium is one of the heavy, radioactive elements in Mendeleev’s table that are still largely beyond the frontiers of knowledge. Credit: Shutterstock Little is known about the heaviest, radioactive elements in Mendeleev's table. But an extremely sensitive technique involving laser light and gas jets makes it possible for the very first time to gain insight into their atomic and nuclear structure. An international team led by scientists from the Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics at KU Leuven report these findings in Nature Communications. In 2016 scientists added four more elements to Mendeleev's periodic table. These heavy elements are not found on Earth and can only be generated using powerful particle accelerators. "The elements are usually generated in minuscule quantities, sometimes just a couple of atoms per year. These atoms are also radioactive, so their decay is quick: sometimes they only exist for a fraction of a second. That is why scientific knowledge of these elements is very limited," say nuclear physicists Mark Huyse and Piet Van Duppen from the KU Leuven Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics. The KU Leuven researchers are now hoping to change that through a new use of the laser ionization technique. "We produced actinium (Ac), the name-giving element of the heavy actinides, in a series of experiments using the particle accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. The quickly decaying atoms of this element were captured in a gas chamber filled with argon, sucked into a supersonic jet, and spotlighted with laser beams. By doing so we bring the outer electron in a different orbit. A second laser beam then shoots the electron away. This ionizes the atom, meaning that it becomes positively charged and is now easy to manipulate and detect. The colour of the laser light is like a fingerprint of the atomic structure of the element and the structure of its nucleus." In itself, laser ionization is a well-known technique but its use in a supersonic jet is new and very suitable for the heavy, radioactive elements: "By ionizing the atom we significantly increase the sensitivity of the technique. The production of a few atoms per second is already enough for measurements during the experiments. This technology increases the sensitivity, accuracy, and speed of the laser ionization by at least ten times. This marks an entirely new era for research on the heaviest elements and makes it possible to test and correct the theoretical models in nuclear physics. Our method will be used in the new particle accelerator of GANIL, which is currently under construction in France." Explore further: First spectroscopic investigation of element nobelium More information: R. Ferrer et al. Towards high-resolution laser ionization spectroscopy of the heaviest elements in supersonic gas jet expansion, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS14520


News Article | December 20, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

DALLAS - Dec. 20, 2016 - UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have invented a transistor-like threshold sensor that can illuminate cancer tissue, helping surgeons more accurately distinguish cancerous from normal tissue. In this latest study, researchers were able to demonstrate the ability of the nanosensor to illuminate tumor tissue in multiple mouse models. The study is published in Nature Biomedical Engineering. "We synthesized an imaging probe that stays dark in normal tissues but switches on like a light bulb when it reaches solid tumors. The purpose is to allow surgeons to see tumors better during surgery," said senior author Dr. Jinming Gao, Professor of Oncology, Pharmacology and Otolaryngology with the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center. The nanosensor amplifies pH signals in tumor cells to more accurately distinguish them from normal cells. "Cancer is a very diverse set of diseases, but it does have some universal features. Tumors do not have the same pH as normal tissue. Tumors are acidic, and they secrete acids into the surrounding tissue. It's a very consistent difference and was discovered in the 1920's," said Dr. Baran Sumer, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology, and co-senior author of the study. The researchers hope the improved surgical technology can eventually benefit cancer patients in multiple ways. "This new digital nanosensor-guided surgery potentially has several advantages for patients, including more accurate removal of tumors, and greater preservation of functional normal tissues," said Dr. Sumer. "These advantages can improve both survival and quality of life." For example, this technology may help cancer patients who face side effects such as incontinence after rectal cancer surgery. "The new technology also can potentially assist radiologists by helping them to reduce false rates in imaging, and assist cancer researchers with non-invasive monitoring of drug responses," said Dr. Gao. According to the National Cancer Institute, there are 15.5 million cancer survivors in the U.S., representing 4.8 percent of the population. The number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by 31 percent, to 20.3 million, by 2026. Dr. Sumer and Dr. Gao were joined in this study by Dr. Gang Huang, Instructor of Pharmacology; Dr. Xian-Jin Xie, Professor of Clinical Sciences; Dr. Rolf Brekken, Professor of Surgery and Pharmacology and an Effie Marie Cain Research Scholar; and Dr. Xiankai Sun, Director of Cyclotron and Radiochemistry Program in Department of Radiology and Advanced Imaging Research Center, Associate Professor of Radiology, and holder of the Dr. Jack Krohmer Professorship in Radiation Physics; Dr. Joel Thibodeaux, Assistant Professor of Pathology and Director of Cytopathology, Parkland Memorial Hospital. Additional UT Southwestern researchers who contributed to the study include: Dr. Tian Zhao, Dr. Xinpeng Ma, Mr. Yang Li, Dr. Zhiqiang Lin, Dr. Min Luo, Dr. Yiguang Wang, Mr. Shunchun Yang and Ms. Zhiqun Zeng in the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center; and Dr. Saleh Ramezani in the Department of Radiology. Dr. Gao and Dr. Sumer are scientific co-founders of OncoNano Medicine, Inc. The authors declare competing financial interests in the full-text of the Nature Biomedical Engineering article. UT Southwestern Medical Center has licensed the technology to OncoNano Medicine and has a financial interest in the research described in the article. Funding for the project includes grants from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas. Dr. Gao and Dr. Sumer are investigators for two Academic Research grants and OncoNano Medicine was the recipient of a CPRIT Product Development Research grant. Research reported in this press release was supported by the National Cancer Institute under Award Number R01 CA192221 and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center is the only NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center in North Texas and one of just 47 NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers in the nation. Simmons Cancer Center includes 13 major cancer care programs. In addition, the Center's education and training programs support and develop the next generation of cancer researchers and clinicians. Simmons Cancer Center is among only 30 U.S. cancer research centers to be designated by the NCI as a National Clinical Trials Network Lead Academic Participating Site. UT Southwestern, one of the premier academic medical centers in the nation, integrates pioneering biomedical research with exceptional clinical care and education. The institution's faculty includes many distinguished members, including six who have been awarded Nobel Prizes since 1985. The faculty of almost 2,800 is responsible for groundbreaking medical advances and is committed to translating science-driven research quickly to new clinical treatments. UT Southwestern physicians provide medical care in about 80 specialties to more than 100,000 hospitalized patients and oversee approximately 2.2 million outpatient visits a year. This news release is available on our website at http://www. . To automatically receive news releases from UT Southwestern via email, subscribe at http://www.


PubMed | Radiosurgery, Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Robotic Radiosurgery Unit, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cureus | Year: 2016

Modern technologies allow the delivery of high radiation doses to intramedullary spinal cord metastases while lowering the dose to the neighboring organs at risk. Whether this dosimetric advantage translates into clinical benefit is not well known. This study evaluates the acute and late toxicity outcomes in a patient treated with robotic radiosurgery for an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. A 50-year-old woman diagnosed in May 2006 with invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast T2N3M1 (two liver metastases) received chemotherapy with a complete response. Subsequently, she underwent adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy, along with tamoxifen. After several distant relapses, treated mainly with systemic therapy, the patient developed an intramedullary lesion at the C3-C4 level and was referred to our CyberKnife unit for assessment. A total dose of 14 Gy prescribed to the 74% isodose line was administered to the intramedullary lesion in one fraction. One hundred and two treatment beams were used covering 95.63% of the target volume. The mean dose was 15.93 Gy and the maximum dose, 18.92 Gy. Maximum dose to the spinal cord was 13.96 Gy, V12 ~ 0.13 cc and V8 ~ 0.43 cc. Three months after treatment, magnetic resonance imaging showed a reduction in size and enhancement of the intramedullary lesionwith no associated toxicity. During this period, the patient showed a good performance statuswithout neurological deficits. Currently, with a follow-up of 37 months, the patient has the ability to perform activities of daily life. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases is a rare and aggressive disease, often treatment-refractory. Our case demonstrates that radiation therapy delivery with robotic radiosurgery allows the achievement of a high local control without adding toxicity.


News Article | April 8, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Researchers found that new composite metal foams (CMFs) have excellent thermal protection compared to plain metal, turning armor piercing bullet into dust. North Carolina State University researchers studied lightweight CMFs and found that the air pockets inside the metal foams are effective heat blockers. This makes CMFs a promising tool for use in transport and storage of hazardous materials, explosives, nuclear elements, and other heat sensitive materials. It could also prove beneficial for space exploration. Mechanical and aerospace engineering professor at NC State Afsaneh Rabiei shared that this property can be attributed to the hollow spheres in the CMFs, which is composed of stainless steel, carbon steel, or titanium implanted in a metallic matrix of aluminum, metallic alloys, and steel. "The presence of air pockets inside CMF make it so effective at blocking heat, mainly because heat travels more slowly through air than through metal," said Rabiei. The researchers employed two technologies in creating CMFs. One is by making a cast of low melting point matrix material using aluminum to surround the hollow spheres, which has a higher melting point like steel. Another technique is by having prefabricated hollow spheres covered with baked matrix powder, which creates a steel-steel CMF. To prove the heat and fire protection capability of CMFs, the researchers subjected samples of 2.5-inch x 2.5-inch steel-steel CMF that have 0.75 inch thickness to an 800 degree Celsius (1,472 degrees Fahrenheit) fire for 30 minutes. The researchers monitored the material and measured the length of time to reach the other side of the sample. The stainless steel sample only took 4 minutes to breach the 800 degree mark but for the CMF, it took 8 minutes to reach the same temperature. According to Rabiei, CMFs thermal conductivity could prevent accidents from leading to explosions. The research also found that CMFs made up of stainless steel has an 80 percent less expansion at 200 degrees Celsius. The expansion during high heat exposure is constant compared to conventional bulk metals and alloys. Researchers concluded that CMF has excellent thermal insulation, good flame retardant performance, and superior thermal stability when compared to conventional materials available in the market today. In Rabiei's previous study published in the journal Radiation Physics and Chemistry, lightweight metal foams have previously been proven to efficiently block neutron radiation, gamma rays, and X-ray, which can pave the way for more studies that focus on nuclear safety, healthcare applications, and space exploration. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Little is known about the heaviest, radioactive elements in Mendeleev's table. But an extremely sensitive technique involving laser light and gas jets makes it possible for the very first time to gain insight into their atomic and nuclear structure. An international team led by scientists from the Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics at KU Leuven (University of Leuven, Belgium) report these findings in Nature Communications. In 2016 scientists added four more elements to Mendeleev's periodic table. These heavy elements are not found on Earth and can only be generated using powerful particle accelerators. "The elements are usually generated in minuscule quantities, sometimes just a couple of atoms per year. These atoms are also radioactive, so their decay is quick: sometimes they only exist for a fraction of a second. That is why scientific knowledge of these elements is very limited," say nuclear physicists Mark Huyse and Piet Van Duppen from the KU Leuven Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics. The KU Leuven researchers are now hoping to change that through a new use of the laser ionization technique. "We produced actinium (Ac), the name-giving element of the heavy actinides, in a series of experiments using the particle accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. The quickly decaying atoms of this element were captured in a gas chamber filled with argon, sucked into a supersonic jet, and spotlighted with laser beams. By doing so we bring the outer electron in a different orbit. A second laser beam then shoots the electron away. This ionizes the atom, meaning that it becomes positively charged and is now easy to manipulate and detect. The colour of the laser light is like a fingerprint of the atomic structure of the element and the structure of its nucleus." In itself, laser ionization is a well-known technique but its use in a supersonic jet is new and very suitable for the heavy, radioactive elements: "By ionizing the atom we significantly increase the sensitivity of the technique. The production of a few atoms per second is already enough for measurements during the experiments. This technology increases the sensitivity, accuracy, and speed of the laser ionization by at least ten times. This marks an entirely new era for research on the heaviest elements and makes it possible to test and correct the theoretical models in nuclear physics. Our method will be used in the new particle accelerator of GANIL, which is currently under construction in France." This study is a collaboration between KU Leuven, CRC Louvain-la-Neuve, and research teams from France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Finland. Additional material, including images, is available on the website of the Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics.

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