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Cheung M.R.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

Background: We studied Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) breast cancer data of Georgia USA to analyze the impact of socio-economic factors on the disparity of breast cancer treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: This study explored socio-economic, staging and treatment factors that were available in the SEER database for breast cancer from Georgia registry diagnosed in 2004-2009. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was computed for each predictor to measure its discriminatory power. The best biological predictors were selected to be analyzed with socio-economic factors. Survival analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample tests and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used for univariate and multivariate analyses of time to breast cancer specific survival data. Results: There were 34,671 patients included in this study, 99.3% being females with breast cancer. This study identified race and education attainment of county of residence as predictors of poor outcome. On multivariate analysis, these socio-economic factors remained independently prognostic. Overall, race and education status of the place of residence predicted up to 10% decrease in cause specific survival at 5 years. Conclusions: Socio-economic factors are important determinants of breast cancer outcome and ensuring access to breast cancer treatment may eliminate disparities. Source

Wang S.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center | Qian X.,Columbia University
International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design

The radiation effects in tissue depend not only on dose but also on volume exposed, for example, the smaller the volume, the greater the tolerance. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which exploits this effect, can only be achieved with synchrotron X-rays owing to their extraordinarily slight divergence. MRT research over the past 20 years has yielded many results from preclinical trials based on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Typically, targets are exposed to multiple quasi-parallel slices of radiation some tens of micrometres wide with on-centre separations of several hundred micrometres. The microplanar beams are produced by a multi-slit collimator, which cuts horizontally microscopic beam sectors from a wiggler-generated fan beam. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time show a preferential damage of malignant tumour tissues. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

Qian X.,Columbia University | Wang S.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center
International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design

Mammography is a radiographic examination that is specially designed for detecting breast cancer. Screen-film mammography has been the standard breast imaging tool used in conventional mammography. New developments in detector technology and computers are altering the landscape of mammography imaging. Digital imaging systems entered in the radiology departments 15 years ago using photostimulable phosphors (PSP), charge coupled device (CCD), and photoconduction (Thoravision) detectors. Recent introduction of flat panel X-ray detectors can offer extremely high quantum efficiency and high resolution. Digital mammography, also called full field digital mammography (FFDM), offers the promise of revolutionising the practice of mammography through its superior dose and contrast performance. The overall diagnostic accuracy of digital and film mammography as a means of screening for breast cancer is similar, but digital mammography is more accurate. In addition, advanced applications made possible through digital imaging, such as automated computer-aided diagnosis, dual energy and 3D tomosynthesis etc. are expected to further improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

Cheung M.R.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center | Kang J.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center | Ouyang D.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center | Yeung V.,Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

Aim: This study employed public use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data to investigate the association between urinary cadmium (UDPSI) and all cause, all cancer and prostate cancer mortalities in men. Patients and Methods: NHANES III household adult, laboratory and mortality data were merged. The sampling weight used was WTPFEX6, with SDPPSU6 applied for the probability sampling unit and SDPSTRA6 to designate the strata for the survey analysis. Results: For prostate cancer death, the significant univariates were UDPSI, age, weight, and drinking. Under multivariate logistic regression, the significant covariates were age and weight. For all cause mortality in men, the significant covariates were UDPSI, age, and poverty income ratio. For all cancer mortality in men, the significant covariates were UDPSI, age, black and Mexican race. Conclusions: UDPSI was a predictor of all cause and all cancer mortalities in men as well as prostate cancer mortality. Source

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